Understanding GA4 measurement protocol

GA4 Measurement protocol is a set of rules which your application must follow in order to send event data directly to the Google Analytics 4 servers from any device/system which can be connected to the internet.

This device can be a POS (point of purchase systems), cash counter machine, slot machine etc.

However, you would need to format your event data according to the measurement protocol before you can send it to the Google Analytics server. Without such formatting, you can’t send event data to GA4.

Through measurement protocol, you can implement cross-device tracking and measure offline conversions online.

Thus the use of measurement protocol helps in understanding the purchase journey of your customers and in fixing online-offline attribution issues.

Note: You don’t need a measurement protocol if you just want to send event data from your website or mobile app. Use gtag.js or Google Tag Manager for that purpose.

The basic understanding of how measurement protocol works can help you greatly in building your foundation in GA4 and in debugging GA4 events set up.

Introduction to GA4 Measurement Protocol Request

The measurement protocol request is the HTTP POST request your application makes to the Google Analytics server. This request is made every time your application wants to send a hit to the GA server.

We send raw event data to GA servers via a hit.

In order to see how a measurement protocol request looks like, follow the steps below:

Step-1: Navigate to your GA4 reporting view.

If you have not installed GA4 then check out this article: How to upgrade to Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Step-2: Take a note of your measurement ID:

In order to find your measurement ID follow the steps mentioned in this article: Understanding Measurement ID in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)

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Step-3: Open Google Chrome and then navigate to the web page where you have installed Google Analytics 4.

Step-4: Right-click on the web page and then select ‘Inspect’:

You should now see the Google developer console window:

Step-5: Click on the ‘Network‘ tab:

Step-6: Select the two checkboxes ‘Preserve log‘ and ‘Disable cache‘:

Step-7: Refresh your web page.

Your Google developer console window would now look, something like the one below:

Step-8: Enter your measurement ID in the ‘Filter’ text box:

All the network requests starting from collect?v= are measurement protocol requests.

Step-9: Click on one of the protocol requests. On the right-hand side of the developers’ window, you should now be able to see the full measurement protocol request:

ga4 measurement protocol

Here is how the full measurement protocol request looks like:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1938363182&sr=1920×1080&ul=en-gb&cid=1589083120.1608140081&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fhow-to-import-conversions-from-ga4-property-to-your-google-ads-account%2F&dr=&dt=How%20to%20import%20conversions%20from%20GA4%20property%20to%20your%20Google%20Ads%20account%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608140080&sct=1&seg=1&en=page_view

Each measurement protocol request is made up of ‘transport’ and ‘payload data’.

Transport defines where and how to send the payload data.

Following is an example of transport:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect

Here is how the transport looks like (highlighted text) in the measurement protocol request:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1938363182&sr=1920×1080&ul=en-gb&cid=1589083120.1608140081&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fhow-to-import-conversions-from-ga4-property-to-your-google-ads-account%2F&dr=&dt=How%20to%20import%20conversions%20from%20GA4%20property%20to%20your%20Google%20Ads%20account%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608140080&sct=1&seg=1&en=page_view

A Transport is made up of:

#1 POST method – which defines how to send the payload data.

#2 Location of the GA server – which defines where to send the payload data. For example https://analytics.google.com/g/

#3 URL endpoint – this is used to define whether a single or multiple hits should be sent to the GA server or whether to send the payload data to the measurement protocol validation server. Example of URL endpoints ‘/collect‘, ‘/debug‘, ‘/batch‘.

Payload data is the data you send to the Google Analytics server using the measurement protocol.

Following is an example of payload data:

v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1938363182&sr=1920×1080&ul=en-gb&cid=1589083120.1608140081&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fhow-to-import-conversions-from-ga4-property-to-your-google-ads-account%2F&dr=&dt=How%20to%20import%20conversions%20from%20GA4%20property%20to%20your%20Google%20Ads%20account%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608140080&sct=1&seg=1&en=page_view

Here is how the payload data looks like (highlighted text) in the measurement protocol request:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1938363182&sr=1920×1080&ul=en-gb&cid=1589083120.1608140081&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fhow-to-import-conversions-from-ga4-property-to-your-google-ads-account%2F&dr=&dt=How%20to%20import%20conversions%20from%20GA4%20property%20to%20your%20Google%20Ads%20account%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608140080&sct=1&seg=1&en=page_view

As you can see, the payload data resembles a URL query string (query string is the part of the URL which comes after the ‘?’ Character).

Payload data is made up of multiple parameters. Each parameter is made up of ‘key = value’ pairs. Each parameter is separated from another parameter via & character.

Since each parameter is made up of ‘key = value‘ pairs, each ‘key=value’ pair is separated by ‘&’ character.

Syntax of payload data:

parameter1&parameter2&parameter3

or

key1=value1&key2=value2&key3=value3

Now lets breakdown our payload data into ‘key=value’ pairs with each pair appearing on a separate line:

v=2
tid=G-7KE5STV3EN
gtm=2oebu0
_p=1938363182
sr=1920×1080
ul=en-gb
cid=1589083120.1608140081
_s=1
dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fhow-to-import-conversions-from-ga4-property-to-your-google-ads-account%2F
dr=
dt=How%20to%20import%20conversions%20from%20GA4%20property%20to%20your%20Google%20Ads%20account%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608140080
sct=1
seg=1
en=page_view

Here, the following are examples of keys (highlighted in bold text):

v=2
tid=G-7KE5STV3EN
gtm=2oebu0
_p=1938363182
sr=1920×1080
ul=en-gb
cid=1589083120.1608140081
_s=1
dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fhow-to-import-conversions-from-ga4-property-to-your-google-ads-account%2F
dr=
dt=How%20to%20import%20conversions%20from%20GA4%20property%20to%20your%20Google%20Ads%20account%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608140080
sct=1
seg=1
en=page_view

The following are examples of values (highlighted in bold text):

v=2
tid=G-7KE5STV3EN
gtm=2oebu0
_p=1938363182
sr=1920×1080
ul=en-gb
cid=1589083120.1608140081
_s=1
dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fhow-to-import-conversions-from-ga4-property-to-your-google-ads-account%2F
dr=
dt=How%20to%20import%20conversions%20from%20GA4%20property%20to%20your%20Google%20Ads%20account%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608140080
sct=1
seg=1
en=page_view

Note: All values you sent via measurement protocol to GA, must be both UTF-8 encoded and URL encoded.

Step-10: In order to better understand the measurement protocol request, scroll down the right-hand side window until you see the ‘Query String Parameters‘ section:

Step-11: Click on the link ‘View decoded‘:

Step-12: Drag your developer console window as high as possible so that you can see a larger portion of your console.

You should now be able to easily read all the parameters in your measurement protocol request:

List of parameters commonly used in payload data

#1 Measurement Protocol Version 2

‘v’ is used to denote the measurement protocol version.

The value of this parameter for GA4 is 2

For example: v=2 as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

Note: Universal analytics uses measurement protocol version 1

#2 Measurement ID

In the case of GA4, ‘tid’ denotes the measurement ID (and not the tracking ID).

The value of this parameter should be the measurement ID of the data stream, where you want to send the payload data.

For example: tid=G-7KE5STV3EN as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#3 Screen Resolution

‘sr’ is used to collect the screen resolution data of your user.

For example: sr=1920×1080 as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#4 User Language

‘ul’ is used to collect user/browser language data.

For example: ul=en-gb as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#5 Client ID

‘cid’ is used to denote the client ID (ID which anonymously identifies a particular device / browser and is unique to a particular user).

For example: cid=1878237460.1594221501 as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#6 Session hits count

‘_s’ is used to collect the session hits count data.

For example: _s=1 as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#7 Document location

‘dl’ is used to collect the full URL (encoded URL) of the page which contains the content. The value of this parameter should be a URL (an encoded URL).

For example:

dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F

as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#8 Document referrer

‘dr’ is used to collect the referral source which sent traffic to your website. The value of this parameter should be a URL (an encoded URL).

For example:

dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis

as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#9 Document title

‘dt’ is used to collect the page title. The value of this parameter should be a URL encoded text string.

For example:

dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart

as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#10 Session ID

‘sid’ is used to denote the session id.

For example: sid=1608149273

as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#11 Session Count

‘sct’ denotes session count i.e. the number of sessions counted for a user.

For example: sct=154

as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#12 Session Engaged

‘seg’ is used to denote whether a session is engaged or not.

An Engaged session is a GA session in which a user has actively interacted with your website/app for at least 10 seconds. The GA session in which a conversion event is fired or two or more pageviews/screenviews are fired is also reported as an engaged session.

The value of this parameter is of type boolean, either 0 (i.e. not an engaged session) or 1 (i.e. an engaged session).

For example: seg=0

as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

#13 Event name

‘en’ is used to denote the name of an event. The value of this parameter should be of type ‘string’.

Following are the example of various possible values for ‘en’ parameter:

en=page_view
en=user_engagement
en=view_search_results
en=click
en=video_start
en=video_progress
en=video_complete
en=file_download

#14 Session Start

‘_ss’ is used to denote session start i.e. whether the current hit started a new session.

The value of this parameter is of type boolean, either 0 (i.e. did not start the new session) or 1 (i.e. started the new session).

For example: _ss=1

as in:

https://analytics.google.com/g/collect?v=2&tid=G-7KE5STV3EN&gtm=2oebu0&_p=1296718930&sr=1920×1080&_gaz=1&ul=en-gb&cid=1878237460.1594221501&_s=1&dl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2Fanalysis-hub-google-analytics-how-to-use-the-exploration-report%2F&dr=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.optimizesmart.com%2F%3Fs%3Dadvanced%2Banalysis&dt=Analysis%20Hub%20Google%20Analytics%20-%20How%20to%20use%20the%20Exploration%20Report%20in%20GA4%20-%20Optimize%20Smart&sid=1608149273&sct=154&seg=0&en=page_view&_ss=1

The data types supported by Measurement Protocol version 2

The measurement protocol version 2 supports the following data types for the values in the ‘key = value’ pairs of the payload data:

  1. Integer – used to represent a number
  2. Text – used to represent a string
  3. Boolean – used to represent a boolean value (true or false)
  4. Currency – used to represent the total value of a currency.

Measurement Protocol Rules

As mentioned earlier, the ‘Measurement protocol’ is a set of rules which your application must follow in order to send event data directly to the Google Analytics servers from any device/system which can be connected to the internet.

Now since we have briefly covered what transport and payload data are, we are now in a better position to understand the measurement protocol rules.

The Measurement protocol rules are the rules regarding:

  • Formatting the protocol requests
  • Length and format of the payload data
  • Length and format of each parameter
  • Parameters which can be sent together and which can’t be sent together
  • Parameters which are required for particular hit type.
  • Parameters which can be sent for a particular hit type.
  • Allowed key and value pairs
  • Valid keys
  • Valid hit types
  • Length and format of each value
  • Supported data types
  • Format of transport

When you understand all these rules, you can use the measurement protocol to send event data directly to the Google Analytics servers from any device/system which can be connected to the internet.

Caveat

The measurement protocol in GA4 is still in Alpha and not ready for production. Any content on this topic is for information purpose only.

Other articles related to GA4 (Google Analytics 4)

#1 Google Analytics 4 Intro

  1. What is Google Analytics 4 (GA4) – The Apps + Web Property
  2. How to upgrade to Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  3. Google Analytics 4 (GA4) vs Universal Analytics – What is the difference?
  4. Google Signals for GA4 – How to see gender, interest and age data in Google Analytics 4
  5. Understanding Measurement ID in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)
  6. Google Analytics 4 training and tutorial

#2 Google Analytics 4 Integration

  1. How to connect GA4 (Google Analytics 4) with Google Data Studio
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#3 Google Analytics 4 Events

  1. How to set up event tracking in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)
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  4. All Events Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
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#5 Google Analytics 4 Ecommerce

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#6 Google Analytics 4 Specialized Tracking

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#7 Google Analytics 4 filters

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#8 Google Analytics 4 Advanced

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#9 Google Analytics 4 Reporting

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Attribution modelling is the process of determining the most effective marketing channels for investment. This book has been written to help you implement attribution modelling. It will teach you how to leverage the knowledge of attribution modelling in order to allocate marketing budget and understand buying behaviour.

Attribution Modelling in Google Ads and Facebook
This book has been written to help you implement attribution modelling in Google Ads (Google AdWords) and Facebook. It will teach you, how to leverage the knowledge of attribution modelling in order to understand the customer purchasing journey and determine the most effective marketing channels for investment.

About the Author

Himanshu Sharma

  • Founder, OptimizeSmart.com
  • Over 15 years of experience in digital analytics and marketing
  • Author of four best-selling books on digital analytics and conversion optimization
  • Nominated for Digital Analytics Association Awards for Excellence
  • Runs one of the most popular blogs in the world on digital analytics
  • Consultant to countless small and big businesses over the decade
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