# Best Types of Charts in Excel for Data Analysis, Presentation and Reporting

**Table of Contents for Best Types of Charts in Excel for Data Analysis, Presentation and Reporting**

- Excel charts and graphs types
- When to use a line chart
- When to use a clustered column chart
- When to use a combination chart
- When to use a stacked column chart
- When to use a 100% stacked column chart
- When to use a stacked area chart
- When to use a bar chart
- When to use a pie chart
- When to use a number chart
- When to use a gauge chart (speedometer chart)
- When to use a scatter chart
- When to use a histogram
- When to use an ‘actual vs. target’ chart
- When to use a bullet chart
- When to use a funnel chart
- When to use a Venn diagram
- Charts to avoid for reporting purposes
- How to change the chart type in Excel
- Other articles on Excel charts
- Frequently asked questions about Excel charts
- Articles on data analysis and reporting

In this article, I will show you the best types of charts in Excel for data analysis, presentation and reporting within 15 minutes. You will learn about the various Excel charts types from column charts, bar charts, line charts, pie charts to stacked area charts.

**The type of Excel chart you select for your analysis and reporting depends upon the type of data you want to analyze and report and what you want to do with data:**

- Visualize data (make sense of data esp. big data)
- Classify and categorize data
- Find a relationship among data
- Understand the composition of data
- Understand the distribution of data
- Understand the overlapping of data
- Determine patterns and trends
- Detect outliers and other anomalies in data
- Predict future trends
- Tell meaningful and engaging stories to decision-makers

**Excel charts and graphs types**

**Following are the most popular Excel charts and graphs:**

- Clustered column chart
- Combination chart
- Stacked column chart
- 100% stacked column chart
- Bar chart
- Line chart
- Number chart
- Gauge chart (Speedometer chart)
- Pie chart
- Stacked area chart
- Venn diagram
- Scatter chart
- Histogram
- Actual vs. target chart
- Bullet chart
- Funnel chart

## When to use a line chart

#1 Use **line charts** when you want to show/focus on data trends (uptrend, downtrend, short term trend, sideways trend, long term) especially long term trends (i.e. changes over several months or years) between the values of the data series:

#2 Use **line charts** when you have too many data points to plot and the use of column or bar chart clutters the chart.

#3 Use a line chart instead of a clustered column chart if the order of categories is important:

#4 In a line graph, the x-axis would represent the categories and the y-axis would represent the measurement values that would be represented periodically.

#5 A line graph should be used when you want to emphasize the changes for values for one variable that are represented in the vertical axis to the other variable represented in the horizontal axis.

#6 Line graphs are better over bar graphs when there are smaller changes.

#7 To read a line graph, first examine the two axes and understand the value points represented on the graph. The second thing is to figure out if there was a rise or fall in the data.

## When to use a clustered column chart

#1 Use a **clustered column chart** when you want to compare two to four data series. In other words, avoid using column charts if you have just one data series to plot:

Alternatively, avoid creating a column chart that has got more than four data series. For example, the following chart contains just five data series and it has already started looking cluttered:

The chart below contains 11 data series and is very difficult to read and understand:

If you want to create a column chart which contains a lot of data series then you can **try switching ‘row’ and ‘column’ of the chart** and see whether it makes any difference:

For example, after switching the row and column of the chart (with 11 data series), it looks like the one below:

Now this chart, though still look cluttered, is much easier to read and understand.

#2 Although the clustered column chart looks like a simple column chart, it is slightly different. A simple column chart is used to represent only a single variable over the other variable, whereas clustered column charts represent multiple data variables.

#3 Use a **clustered column chart** when the data series you want to compare have the same unit of measurement. So avoid using column charts that compare data series with different units of measurement.

For example in the chart below ‘Sales’ and ‘ROI’ have different units of measurement. The data series ‘Sales’ is of type number. Whereas the data series ‘ROI’ is of type percentage:

#4 Use a **clustered column chart** when the data series you want to compare are of comparable sizes. So if the values of one data series dwarf the values of the other data series then do not use the column chart.

For example in the chart below the values of the data series ‘Website Traffic’ completely dwarf the values of the data series named ‘Transactions’:

#5 Use a clustered column chart when you want to show the maximum and minimum values of each data series you want to compare.

#6 Use a clustered column chart when you want to focus on short term trends (i.e. changes over days or weeks) and/or the order of categories is not important.

Breaking a clustered column chart

The chart below contains 11 data series and is very difficult to read and understand:

One method of making this chart easier to read and understand is by breaking it into several smaller clustered column charts.

For example, you can create one column chart which just compares the sales performance of various countries in January. Create another column chart which just compares the sales performance of various countries in Feb and so on:

The rule of thumb is to **avoid presenting too much data in one chart, regardless of the chart type you use.**

## When to use a combination chart

A combination chart is simply a combination of two or more charts.

For example the combination of a column chart with a line chart. I use combination charts a lot and I think you must know how to create them as they are very useful.

#1 Use a combination chart when you want to compare two or more data series that have different units of measurement:

#2 Use a combination chart when you want to compare two or more data series that are not of comparable sizes:

#3 Use a combination chart when you want to display different types of data in different ways that can be represented in the same chart. For example, line, bar and column charts can be used on the same chart.

## When to use a stacked column chart

Use a stacked column chart when you want to compare data series along with their composition and the overall size of each data series is important:

## When to use a 100% stacked column chart

Use a **100% stacked column chart** when you want to compare data series along with their composition but the overall size of each data series is not important:

This chart is used to show the percentage of multiple data series in stacked columns.

## When to use a stacked area chart

Use a stacked area chart when you want to show the trend of composition and emphasize the magnitude of change over time.

For example, the following stacked area chart shows the breakdown of website traffic:

## When to use a bar chart

#1 Use a bar chart whenever the axis labels are too long to fit in a column chart:

### Types of bar charts

**Horizontal bar charts** – Represents the data horizontally. In this, the data categories are shown on the vertical axis and data values are shown on the horizontal axis.

**Vertical bar charts **– Also called a column chart. It represents the numerical values represented in the vertical bars. These are used mainly to display age ranges, salary ranges.

**Grouped bar charts** – Grouped bar charts are a combination of representing the different time period numbers which belong to a single category.

**Stacked bar charts** – It is a bar chart that represents the comparisons between categories of data but with the ability to compare and breakdown the data.

## When to use a pie chart

#1 Use a **pie chart** when you want to show a 100% composition of data. In other words, the various pie slices you use must add up to 100%. What that means, do not create a pie-chart where the various pie slices do not represent parts of the whole pie.

For example, the following pie chart is not a good representation of data composition as the two pie slices add up to 82% and not 100%:

#2 Use a pie chart to show the composition of data only when you have got one data series and less than five categories to plot.

For example, the following pie chart shows the breakdown of website traffic sources in the last month:

Here I have got only four categories (search traffic, referral traffic, direct traffic, and campaigns) to plot. So a pie chart is ideal to show the breakdown.

However, if there were more than four categories to plot, like eight or ten categories, then the pie chart would have become cluttered and hard to read. For example, the following pie chart looks cluttered because it has got too many categories:

#3 Pie charts generally express the part to whole relationship in your data. When your data is represented in ‘percentage’ or ‘part of’ then a pie chart is the best to meet your needs.

#4 Use a pie chart to show data composition only when the pie slices are of comparable sizes. In other words, do not use a pie chart if the size of one pie slice completely dwarfs the size of the other pie slice(s):

#5 Order your pie slices in such a way that as you look clockwise from top to bottom, the biggest pie slice comes first followed by the second biggest pie slice and so on. This makes the pie chart easy to read:

These pie charts are made from the following data:

In order to create a pie chart where the biggest pie slice comes first followed by the second biggest pie slice and so on, I have sorted the data in decreasing order (from largest to smallest).

**Best practices for pie charts**

**Limit the number of pie slices**: Always make sure to use a minimal number of slices when creating a pie chart. It is really difficult to read a large number of slices. If you have more than five categories then it is recommended to use a different type of chart.

**Make sure all data adds up to 100%: **Verify that the pie slices are valued to 100% when added up.

**Include annotations:** Include percentages and labels for your pie charts to make it easy to read. Pie charts work best for 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%.

**Don’t compare multiple pie charts: **Do not use multiple pie charts for comparison as the slice sizes are really difficult to compare side by side.

## When to use a number chart

If you want to visualize just one type of data and it contains a numeric value which does not fall in any range/interval then use the number chart:

## When to use a gauge chart (also known as speedometer chart)

If you want to visualize just one type of data and it contains a numeric value which falls in a range/interval then use the gauge chart (also known as speedometer chart):

A gauge chart should be used when you want to validate if your data falls in the acceptable range or not.

A gauge chart would generally have the maximum value as default and thresholds as low, medium and high, which indicate if the data is falling within the acceptable range. Thresholds would be displayed red, green and yellow for specified values.

## When to use a scatter chart

#1 Consider using a scatter chart when you want to analyze and report the **relationship/correlation** between two variables:

From this chart, we can conclude that the relationship between the two variables (‘x’ and ‘y’) is linear. What that means, as the value of the variable ‘x’ increases there is a corresponding increase in the value of the variable ‘y’.

#2 Create a scatter chart only when there are ten or more data points on the horizontal axis. The more data points the better it is for a scatter chart. Conversely, just a few data points (like five or six data points) are not good enough for creating a scatter chart.

#3 Use a scatter chart when you want to show ‘why’. For example: why revenue is correlated with average order value or why conversion rate is correlated with the number of transactions.

## When to use a histogram

Use a histogram to show frequency distribution for quantitative data.

A histogram represents the visual representation of numerical data that falls within a specified range of values called ‘bins’. It looks exactly like a vertical graph.

**Note:** You would need to install the ‘**Analysis ToolPak**’ in order to create a histogram in Excel.

## When to use an ‘actual vs. target’ chart

The chart below shows whether target sales were achieved in each quarter:

This chart is based on the following data table:

The ‘Actual vs. target’ chart is a combination chart that requires some formatting. You can’t insert this chart straightaway into your Excel spreadsheet. Use this chart when you have got multiple goals and you want to show progress towards each goal.

## When to use a bullet chart

The chart below shows the performance of sales in Quarter 4:

This chart is based on the following data table:

If the actual sales are between $0 to $240,000 then sales performance is considered ‘Poor’.

If the actual sales are between $240,000 to $300,000 ($240,000 + $60,000) then it is considered ‘Fair’.

If the actual sales are between $300,000 to $360,000 ($240,000 + $60,000 + $60,000) then it is considered ‘Good’.

If the actual sales are between $360,000 to $400,000 ($240,000 + $60,000 + $60,000 + $40,000) then it is considered ‘Excellent’.

A Bullet chart is a combination chart (though it looks like a single bar chart) which is used to show progress towards a single goal using a range of predefined qualitative and quantitative parameters.

You can’t insert this chart straightaway into your Excel spreadsheet and it is also quite tricky to create.

If you have multiple goals and you want to show progress towards each goal then use the ‘Actual vs. target’ chart. But if you have only one goal and you want to show progress towards this goal (by using both qualitative and quantitative data) then use the bullet chart.

A bullet chart can be a vertical bar chart or horizontal bar chart. The choice of vertical or horizontal alignment depends on the space available to use for data visualization.

## When to use a funnel chart

Funnel charts are a visual representation of the progressive reduction of data from one phase to another phase. The first stage is usually referred to as the intake stage.

The chart below shows different stages of the purchase funnel and how user moved from one stage to the next:

This chart is based on the following data table:

As the name suggests the funnel chart is used for funnel visualization. It is perfect for showing lead funnel and sales funnels. A funnel chart provides the visual pictures of the stages in the process.

For example, let us take an example of an ecommerce business. Funnel charts can be used to understand how many users have actually added the products to cart, provided shipping details and completed the purchase.

It also provides us with information about users who have abandoned the cart.

This chart is available in MS Excel (2016 and above). You just need to select your data table and then insert the ‘Funnel’ chart.

Funnel charts are mostly used for the sales process and identify any potential problems.

A funnel consists of a higher value, called the head, and the lower part, which is referred to as the neck.

## When to use a Venn diagram

Use a Venn diagram to show the overlapping of data.

The multi-channel conversion visualizer chart used in Google Analytics to visualize multi-channel attribution is actually a Venn diagram:

In the context of web analytics, we can use a Venn diagram to determine whether or not a website has got attribution problems. If there is little to no overlap between two or more marketing channels then the website doesn’t have attribution issues.

If there is a good amount of overlap then the website has got attribution issues and you should seriously consider taking multi-channel attribution into account while analyzing and interpreting the performance of marketing campaigns.

To learn more about attribution modelling read this article: Beginners Guide to Google Analytics Attribution Modelling

Another great use of Venn diagrams is in visualizing the backlinks overlaps between websites:

The tool that I have used to create this Venn diagram is known as Venny.

**Note**: You can create a Venn diagram in Excel. Check out this tutorial on the Microsoft Office website: Create a Venn diagram

**Types of Venn diagrams**

**Two set diagrams** – Two circles overlapping properties. This is the most common and simplest form of Venn diagram used to compare two metrics or variables.

**Three set diagrams –** This lets you visualize the relationship between three subjects rather than two variables.

**Four set diagram**– This comprises of four circles overlapping properties. A bit more complex than the normal Venn diagram and each circle represents the different aspect of the data and their comparison to other variables.

## Charts to avoid for reporting purposes

Throughout this article, I have talked about the charts that should be used. But there are some charts which should be avoided for reporting purposes unless your target audience is as data-savvy as you.

Following are those charts:

### #1 Charts to avoid > Treemap

### #2 Charts to avoid > Waterfall chart

### #3 Charts to avoid > Radar chart

### #4 Charts to avoid > Bubble chart

The reason you should be avoiding reporting data via these charts to your clients is simple. The majority of people have no idea what you are trying to communicate via these charts. Use these charts only when your target audience is as data-savvy as you.

**How to change the chart type in Excel**

MS Excel allows you to change the chart type. For example, you can convert a clustered column chart into a stacked column chart. Or you can convert a column chart into a bar chart.

For example, let’s convert the following column chart into a bar chart:

**Follow the steps below:**

**Step-1**: Open MS Excel and navigate to the spreadsheet which contains the chart you want to edit

**Step-2**: Select the chart and then from the ”* Design*‘ tab click on the ‘Change Chart Type’ button:

You will now see the ‘Change Chart Type’ dialog box like the one below:

**Step-3**: Click on ‘Bar’ (from the left-hand navigation) and then click on the ‘OK’ button:

Excel will now change your column chart into a bar chart:

## Other articles on Excel charts

**Which Chart Type Works Best for Summarizing Time-Based Data in Excel****Five Advanced Excel Charts and Graphs****Data Visualization in Excel Tutorial****What type of chart to use to compare data in Excel**

## Articles on data analysis and reporting

- Making Good Marketing Decisions Despite of Faulty Analytics Data
- Ten tips to analyse data trends in Google Analytics
- 21 Secrets to Becoming a Champion in Data Reporting
- How to become champion in data reporting via Storytelling

**Frequently asked questions about Excel charts**

### What is data visualization?

Data visualization is the presentation of data (both qualitative and quantitative data) in graphical format. Through data visualization you can easily: make sense of data (especially big data), classify and categorize data, find relationships among data, understand the composition of data, understand the distribution of data, understand the overlapping of data, determine patterns and trends, detect outliers and other anomalies in data, predict future trends and tell meaningful and engaging stories to decision-makers.

### Why is it important to use the correct Excel chart?

If you use an incorrect Excel chart for your analysis, you may misinterpret data and make the wrong business and marketing decisions. If you use an incorrect Excel chart for your presentation, then stakeholders may misinterpret your charts and take wrong decisions. Therefore selecting the right Excel chart is critically important.

### What is a data series?

A data series is a set of related data points.

### What is a data point?

Data point represents an individual unit of data. 10, 20, 30, 40, etc are examples of data points. In the context of charts, a data point represents a mark on a chart.

### What should be the criteria for selecting an Excel chart?

The type of Excel chart you select for your analysis and reporting should depend upon the type of data you want to analyse and report and what you want to do with data. Do you want to classify and categorize data or find relationships among data or understand the composition, distribution or overlapping of data.

### What is quantitative data?

Quantitative data (also known as interval/ratio data) is the data that can be measured. For example 10 customers, sales, ROI, weight etc.

### What is qualitative data?

Qualitative data is the data that can be classified/categorized but it can not be measured. For example: colours, satisfaction, rankings etc.

### What is discrete data?

It is quantitative data with finite number of values / observations. For example: 5 customers, 17 points, 12 steps etc.

### What is continuous data?

It is quantitative data with value / observation within a range/interval. For example, sales in the last one year.

### What is nominal data?

It is qualitative data that can not be put into a meaningful order (i.e. ranked). For example {Blue, Yellow, Green, Red, Black}

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