Google Analytics 4 training & tutorial with FREE GA4 ebook

Table of Contents for Google Analytics 4 training & tutorial

  1. What is Google Analytics 4?
  2. Google Analytics 4 property and view
  3. Google Analytics 4 data streams
  4. Measurement ID in Google Analytics 4
  5. ‘Event and Parameter’ measurement model
  6. Difference between GA4 and other earlier versions of Google Analytics
  7. Advantages of using the Google Analytics 4 property
  8. How to create and use Google Analytics 4 property
  9. Google Signals for Google Analytics 4
  10. Integrating Google Analytics 4 with Google Ads
  11. Cross-domain tracking in Google Analytics 4
  12. Visualizing GA4 data in Google Data Studio
  13. Using BigQuery with Google Analytics 4
  14. Understanding events in Google Analytics 4
  15. Event parameters in Google Analytics 4
  16. Conversion tracking in Google Analytics 4
  17. Ecommerce tracking in Google Analytics 4
  18. Custom audience in Google Analytics 4
  19. Audience triggers in Google Analytics 4
  20. Predictive metrics in Google Analytics 4
  21. Predictive audiences in Google Analytics 4
  22. Remarketing audiences in Google Analytics 4
  23. Measurement protocol in Google Analytics 4
  24. Building comparisons (advanced segments) in Google Analytics 4
  25. Automated insights in Google Analytics 4
  26. Creating custom insights in Google Analytics 4
  27. The DebugView report in Google Analytics 4
  28. Data filters in Google Analytics 4
  29. Scroll tracking in Google Analytics 4
  30. Site search tracking in Google Analytics 4
  31. Channel groupings in Google Analytics 4
  32. Data sampling in Google Analytics 4
  33. Google Analytics 4 Event Builder
  34. Funnel Exploration report in Google Analytics 4
  35. Segment overlap report in Google Analytics 4
  36. Path analysis report in Google Analytics 4
  37. User lifetime report in Google Analytics 4
  38. Importing data to Google Analytics 4
  39. Google Analytics 4 test property
  40. Excluding unwanted referrals in Google Analytics 4
  41. Dimensions in Google Analytics 4
  42. Custom dimensions in Google Analytics 4
  43. Event-scoped custom dimensions in Google Analytics 4
  44. User-scoped custom dimensions (user properties) in Google Analytics 4
  45. Metrics in Google Analytics 4
  46. Custom metrics in Google Analytics 4
  47. Installing Google Analytics 4 on a Shopify store
  48. Google Analytics 4 Annotations
  49. Setting up GA4 via GTM server-side tagging
  50. Tracking single page apps in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  51. Connecting and exporting data from Google Analytics 4 to BigQuery
  52. Cohort exploration report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

What is Google Analytics 4?

Google Analytics 4 (also known as Apps + Web) is the latest version of Google Analytics.

Through GA4, you can combine mobile app and website usage data for unified reporting and analysis. GA4 uses the gtag.js library and a new measurement model called the Event and Parameter model.

Google Analytics 4 is the fourth version of Google Analytics.

Following are the other three versions:

Google Analytics 4 property and view

A Google Analytics 4 property is a GA property which allows you to integrate mobile app and website usage data. A GA4 property can collect data from both your mobile apps and website.

Even if you don’t have a mobile app, Google still recommends that you create and use the GA4 property and run in parallel with your GA3 property as eventually, Google is likely to discontinue support for GA3 and other older GA versions.

The reporting view that you create in a GA4 property is a GA4 view. 

Note: GA4 won’t become a 100% replacement for your GA3 property anytime soon. It is still not ready for commercial consumption, mainly because of the lack of robust e-commerce reporting and attribution modelling, so keep your GA3 property intact.

Google Analytics 4 data streams

Data streams in GA4

The GA4 property contains one or more data streams.

A data stream is a data source.

When the data source is a website, it is called a web data stream.

When the data source is a mobile app, it is called a mobile app data stream.

There are two types of mobile app data streams:

  1. IOS app data stream
  2. Android app data stream

A web data stream has got: Stream URL, Stream name, Measurement ID, and Stream ID:

Web Stream details

Measurement ID in Google Analytics 4

A measurement ID is just like a tracking ID. However, unlike a tracking ID, the measurement ID begins with  the characters ‘G-’. For example G-SV0HS12BXZ

Property settings
Measurement ID

In order to set up any type of tracking in GA4, you would need to use the measurement ID. This makes understanding the measurement ID so important.

If you want to learn more about the measurement ID then check out this article: Understanding Google Analytics Measurement ID (GA4)

The ‘Event and Parameter’ measurement model of Google Analytics 4

GA4 uses the ‘Event and Parameter’ measurement model to track all types of users’ activities (including ‘pageviews’).

The ‘event and parameter’ measurement model is more flexible than the traditional ‘sessions and pageviews’ model for of the following reasons:

#1 It allows you to see integrated data across mobile apps and website in a single GA4 reporting view.

#2 It allows you to use a single set of metrics and dimensions across mobile apps and websites.

#3 It allows you to automatically track certain types of user interactions (like scrolls, outbound clicks, file downloads, video engagement, site search, etc).

What is the difference between Google Analytics 4 and other earlier versions of Google Analytics?

Following are the main differences between Google Analytics 4 and other earlier versions of Google Analytics (GA3, GA2):

  1. GA4 has a different reporting interface (which looks similar to that of Google Analytics for Firebase)
  2. GA4 use the different measurement model (which is based on events and parameters instead of sessions and pageviews)
  3. GA4 use measurement ID instead of tracking ID
  4. Event tracking is set up differently in GA4
  5. GA4 allows automation of certain types of events (via enhanced measurement feature)
  6. GA4 uses different ‘User and event data retention’ period (2 months, 14 months)
  7. The e-commerce tracking in GA4 is set up differently.
  8. GA4 provides much more robust cross-device and cross-platform tracking
  9. GA4 Attribution Modelling capabilities are non-existent.
  10. Custom dimensions in GA4 are set up differently.
  11. Custom metrics in GA4 are set up differently.
  12. GA4 has debugging built-in (via the DebugView report)
  13. GA4 provides a new set of engagement metrics (like ‘engagement rate’, ‘engaged sessions’, etc).
  14. GA4 has IP Anonymization built-in
  15. A GA4 property comes with only one reporting view
  16. GA4 comes with a free connection to BigQuery.
  17. GA4 comes with a new set of advanced analysis reports (like the exploration report).

To learn more about these differences, check out this article: Google Analytics 4 (GA4) vs Universal Analytics – What is the difference?

What are the advantages of using the GA4 property over Universal Analytics properties?

Following are the key advantages of using the GA4 property:

  1. GA4 property provides more robust cross-device and cross-platform tracking.
  2. GA4 provides much more accurate reporting on unique users across platforms.
  3. GA4 provides advanced analysis reports (which were earlier available only to GA 360 users).
  4. GA4 provides a free connection to the BigQuery.
  5. There are no limits on the volume of data you can send to a GA4 property.
  6. GA4 allows automatic tracking for certain types of events (like scroll tracking, video tracking, exit tracking, site search tracking, etc).

To learn more about the GA4 advantages, check out the article: Key Benefits of Using Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

How to create and use a Google Analytics 4 property

Google has been displaying the following banner to all GA users, asking them to create and use a GA4 property:

upgrade to Google Analytics 4

If you already have access to a App + Web property, then you don’t need to do much. You already have access to a GA4 property as Google Analytics 4 is just the new name for a App + Web property.

If you don’t have access to the App + Web property then follow the steps mentioned in this article to set up a new GA 4 property: How to upgrade to GA4 (Google Analytics 4)

Google Signals for Google Analytics 4

google signals google analytics 4

Google Signals is an advertising reporting feature of GA4 through which you can perform the following tasks:

  • Collect cross-device data from those website users who have signed in to one of their Google accounts (Gmail, YouTube, etc.) and have turned on ad personalization.
  • Analyze demographic data (age, gender and interest) of your users in GA4 reports.
  • Track and remarket to more users across different devices and platforms.

Google Signals is not enabled by default; you have to activate it for your GA4 property.

Follow the steps mentioned in this article on how to enable and use Google Signals in GA4: Google Signals GA4 – See demographics (gender, age) in Google Analytics 4

Integrating Google Analytics 4 with Google Ads

Ads Linking

GA4 allows integration with Google Ads.

Following are the main benefits of integrating your GA4 property with your Google Ads account:

#1 In the case of GA3, you could set up a maximum of 20 conversions per reporting view. However, there is no such limit in the case of GA4. You can set up as many conversions as you want and then later use them in Google Ads.

#2 Because of the event and parameter based measurement model of GA4, you can define your remarketing audience in a more detailed manner based on events like scroll, file download, video play, and custom events, and then later use these audiences in Google Ads.

Follow the steps mentioned in this article in order to connect your GA4 property with your Google Ads account: How to link GA4 (Google Analytics 4) with Google Ads

Cross-domain tracking in Google Analytics 4

cross domain tracking google analytics 4

In the context of GA4, cross-domain tracking is the tracking of website users and their activities across two or more domains.

By default, GA4 is not able to track website users and their activities across multiple domains. That is because GA4 uses first-party cookies that can be read by only that domain that issued it. You would need to manually set up cross-domain tracking.

With cross-domain tracking implemented, when the user navigates to a different domain, analytics cookies are passed from one domain to another using the URL parameter identified as key ‘_gl’. For example, https://www.abc.com/?_gl=1*abhgfrt7*

This way, you can identify the same user across different domains and get a complete view of the user’s journey.

In order to set up cross-domain tracking in your GA4 property follow the steps mentioned in this article: Cross Domain Tracking in GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Setup Guide

Visualizing Google Analytics 4 data in Google Data Studio

You can visualize the GA4 data in Google Data Studio by using the Google Analytics connector:

google analytics connector data studio

For step-by-step instructions on how to visualize the GA4 data in Google Data Studio, check out this article: How to connect GA4 (Google Analytics 4) with Google Data Studio

Using BigQuery with Google Analytics 4

Big Query

One of the big advantages of using Google Analytics 4 is that it comes with a free connection to BigQuery. Earlier, this feature was available to only the Google Marketing Platform users. Now you can access the raw GA4 data and run SQL queries on it.

Following are other benefits of using BigQuery for GA4:

Follow the steps mentioned in this article in order to connect your GA4 property with BigQuery: GA4 BigQuery – Connect Google Analytics 4 with BigQuery

Understanding events in Google Analytics 4

events google analytics 4 1

In the context of GA4, an event is a tracked user’s interaction with a web page element embedded on a website and/or mobile app.

In the case of GA4, all user interactions (including pageviews) are tracked as events.

There are four categories of events in GA4:

  1. Automatically collected events
  2. Enhanced measurement events
  3. Recommended events
  4. Custom events

Check out the following articles to learn more about the events in Google Analytics 4:

  1. How to set up event tracking in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  2. How to setup enhanced measurement tracking in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)
  3. All Events Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  4. How to rename events in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  5. events_ & events_intraday_ tables in BigQuery for GA4 (Google Analytics 4)

What are the event parameters in Google Analytics 4?

event parameters google analytics 4

Parameters are the additional information about a GA4 event that is sent along with the event.

There are three types of event parameters:

  1. Automatically collected parameters
  2. Custom parameters
  3. User properties

To learn more about event parameters in GA4, check out this article: Understanding Event Parameters in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Conversion tracking in Google Analytics 4

conversions ga4

A conversion is a goal or objective for which website/app has been set up.

Your website/app can have one or more objectives like:

  • Getting newsletter signups
  • Generating leads
  • Getting video views
  • Generating sales, etc.

All of these objectives can be tracked as conversions in a GA4 reporting view.

In Google Analytics 4, you can mark any tracked event as a conversion. This is the simplest way to set up conversions for already available tracked events. You can also set up conversions in GA4 by creating a new conversion event.

To learn more about conversions in GA4, check out the following articles:

  1. How to set up conversion tracking in Google Analytics 4
  2. How to import conversions from GA4 property to your Google Ads account

Ecommerce tracking in Google Analytics 4

The ecommerce tracking setup in GA4 is quite different from the corresponding tracking set up in GA3 and other Google Analytics versions.

For example, in GA3, if we want to track product name, we track it by passing the ‘name’. But in the case of GA4, we pass ‘item_name’ to track product name.

Similarly, in GA3, if we want to track click on a promotion, we track it by passing the ‘promoClick’. But in the case of GA4, we pass ‘select_promotion’ to track clicks on a promotion.

If you want to set up ecommerce tracking in GA4 via GTM then follow the steps mentioned in this article: GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Ecommerce Tracking via GTM – Tutorial

Custom audience in Google Analytics 4

custom audience google analytics 4

In the context of GA4, an audience is a group of users who all share some common characteristics.

Following are examples of audiences:

  • Group of users whose location is ‘London’ (London audience).
  • Group of users who visited the website via Facebook Ads (Facebook Ads audience).

A user can be a member of multiple audiences depending on the conditions applied in the audience. You can use GA4 audiences as remarketing audiences for your Google Ads. You can create up to 100 audiences per GA4 property.

In order to create and use audiences in GA4, read this article: GA4 Audiences – Creating custom audience in Google Analytics 4

Audience triggers in Google Analytics 4

audience trigger google analytics 4

In GA4, you can create audience trigger events that fire when users match the definition of an audience and become members.

Audience triggers are used to create complex conversion events in GA4. You can create up to 20 audience trigger events per GA4 property.

Follow the steps mentioned in this article in order to create audience trigger events in GA4: Understanding Audience Triggers in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Predictive metrics in Google Analytics 4

predictive metrics google analytics 4

Through predictive metrics, you can identify users and their actions on the website that will likely lead to a purchase or conversion. This can help you to discover more users who can purchase a product in the next seven days.

You can use predictive metrics in ‘Audience builder’ while creating a custom audience or when doing advanced analysis.

There are three types of predictive metrics available in GA4:

  1. Purchase probability
  2. Churn probability
  3. Revenue prediction

To learn more about predictive metrics in GA4, read this article: What are predictive metrics in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Predictive audiences in Google Analytics 4

predictive audiences google analytics 4

Predictive audiences in Google Analytics 4 help you identify users who are likely to perform a certain action in the near future.

A predictive audience is based on the condition(s) of a predictive metric like purchase probability, churn probability, and revenue predictions.

Following are examples of predictive audiences:

  1. Likely 7-day purchasers – Users who are likely to purchase in the next seven days.
  2. Likely first-time 7-day purchasers – Users who are likely to make their first purchase in the next seven days.
  3. Likely 7-day churning users – Active users who are likely to not visit your website in the next seven days.
  4. Likely 7-day churning purchasers – Purchasing users who are likely to not visit your website in the next seven days.

To learn more about predictive audiences in GA4, read this article: How to create and use predictive audiences in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Remarketing audiences in Google Analytics 4

remarketing audience google analytics 4

You can create a custom audience in GA4 and then use it for remarketing purposes in Google Ads. When you use a custom audience for remarketing purposes, then it is called the remarketing audience.

However, before you create a remarketing audience in GA4, you would need to link your GA4 property with your Google Ads account.

To learn more about remarketing audience, read this article: How to create a remarketing audience in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Measurement protocol in Google Analytics 4

measurement protocol google analytics 4

The measurement protocol is a set of rules which your application must follow in order to send event data directly to the Google Analytics servers from any device/system which can be connected to the internet.

A basic understanding of how measurement protocol works can help you greatly in building your foundation in GA4 and in debugging GA4 events set up.

To learn more about the measurement protocol, read this article: Understanding GA4 measurement protocol

Building comparisons (advanced segments) in Google Analytics 4

Add Comparison

Comparisons in GA4 are just like advanced segments used in Universal Analytics. They allow you to to isolate and analyze a subset of data.

You create comparisons by creating conditions based on dimensions and dimension values. For example, all users vs users from ‘United States’. You can apply the comparison to any GA4 report.

To create and apply comparisons to your GA4 report follow the steps mentioned in this article: How to build comparisons (advanced segments) in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Automated insights in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

The automated insights feature of Google Analytics 4 is just like the analytics intelligence feature available in Universal Analytics reporting views:

Insights

GA4 automatically generate insights for you (based on machine learning) whenever it detects unusual changes or emerging trends in your data.

To learn more about automated insights, read this article: Understanding Automated Insights in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Creating custom insights in Google Analytics 4

create custom insight google analytics 4

Google Analytics 4 provides two types of insights; automated insights and custom insights.

While automated insights are automatically generated by GA4, custom insights are not automatically generated. You can create up to 50 custom insights per GA4 property.

Follow the steps mentioned in this article to create custom insights in GA4: How to create custom insights in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

The DebugView report in Google Analytics 4

debug view report google analytics 4

The DebugView report is a special type of real-time report provided by GA4 through which you can troubleshoot your analytics set up issues within the GA4 user interface.

DebugView allows you to monitor your website/app event data in real-time, along with all the custom parameters and user properties.

Note: The DebugView report only shows you real-time events data for the last 30 minutes.

If you want to understand the DebugView report in more detail then read this article: How to use DebugView report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Data filters in Google Analytics 4

Data Filters

Data filters are one of the features of GA4 through which you can include or exclude certain event data from your GA4 reporting view.

It is important to remember that data filters do not work retroactively. And once you apply the data filter, the effect on your event data is permanent and can not be reversed.

There are two types of data filters available in GA4:

  1. Developer traffic – Use this filter to block developer traffic (the traffic generated from your own device while debugging the analytics implementation).
  2. Internal traffic – Use this filter to block internal traffic (the traffic generated on your website by your own employees, suppliers, and other service providers).

The data filters in GA4 can be further classified into include and exclude filters depending upon the filter operation being used:

Filter operations

Note: You can create up to ten data filters per GA4 property.

To learn more about data filters, check out the following article:

Scroll tracking in Google Analytics 4

scroll tracking google analytics 4

Scroll tracking in GA4 allows you to measure how users are engaging with your website content.

Google Analytics 4 automatically track scroll events by default through its enhanced measurement feature. But it tracks only 90% scroll events. It does not by default track other scroll depths, like 10%, 25%, 50% and 75%.

These scroll depth events can also play an important role in measuring website user behaviour especially if you have a content-rich website (like a blog).

If you want to set up scroll events for lesser thresholds (10%, 25%, 50% and 75%), then you would need to set up custom events using the global site tag (gtag.js) or Google Tag Manager.

Follow the steps mentioned in this article to set up scroll tracking in GA4 via GTM: Scroll Depth Tracking in Google Tag Manager – Tutorial

Site search tracking in Google Analytics 4

site search tracking google analytics 4

Site search (or internal site search) is a functionality provided by a website in the form of a search box:

search box website

Through this search box, users can search for specific contents on your website.

If your website provides site search functionality, then you should set up site search tracking in your GA4 property.

Follow the steps mentioned in this article to set up site search tracking in GA4: GA4 Site Search – Tracking Site Search in Google Analytics 4

Channel groupings in Google Analytics 4

Channel groupings in Google Analytics 4

Channel groupings are a rule-based grouping of marketing channels.

In GA4, channel groupings are used to quickly check the performance of a set of marketing channels or set of traffic sources.

To learn more about channel groupings in GA4, check out this article: Understanding Channel Groupings in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Data sampling in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

standard reports

Data sampling is the process of selecting only a subset of traffic data for analysis and reporting. It is widely used in statistical analysis to analyse large data sets in a cost-efficient manner.

When GA4 analyses the complete traffic data set to produce a report, then the produced report is considered to be unsampled. The metrics reported by an unsampled report are considered to be highly accurate as they are based on complete traffic data set.

When GA4 analyses only a subset of traffic data to produce a report, then the produced report is considered to be sampled. The metrics reported by a sampled report may not be very accurate as they are based on incomplete traffic data set.

To learn more about data sampling in GA4, check out this article: Understanding Data Sampling in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Google Analytics 4 Event Builder

Event builder

If you want to send offline events data to a GA4 property, you can do that via the Google Analytics 4 Event Builder.

Through this tool, you can create and validate measurement protocol events using the measurement protocol validation server.

This tool is made up of the following two sections:

  1. Hit summary
  2. Event details

To learn more about using the GA4 event builder, read the article: How to use Google Analytics 4 Event Builder

Funnel Exploration report in Google Analytics 4

Funnel Analysis Report in Google Analytics 4

Use the Funnel Analysis report in GA4 to visualize the various steps your users take to complete a task (usually a conversion) and where they drop off in your conversion funnel.

You can find the Funnel Exploration report under Explore.

Learn more about this report from this article: How to use the Funnel Exploration Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Segment Overlap report in Google Analytics 4

Segment Overlap Report in Google Analytics 4

Use the Segment Overlap report if you want to visualize the various user segments and understand how they relate to each other.

You can find this report under Analysis Hub in your GA4 reporting view.

Learn more about the Segment Overlap report from this article: How to use Segment Overlap Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Path Analysis report in Google Analytics 4 

Path analysis report in Google Analytics 4

The Path Analysis report is one of the report templates available in the Explore tab of GA4.

Through this analysis technique, you can explore your users’ journey (the steps they took through your website/app) in the form of a tree graph.

You can discover the previous and next actions your users took. You can measure the effects of an event on users’ actions.

You can learn more about Path Analysis in GA4 from this article: How to use path analysis report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

User Lifetime report in Google Analytics 4

user lifetime report ga4

The User Lifetime report is one of the report templates available in the Analysis Hub of GA4.

Through this analysis technique, you can analyze the entire lifetime of your users’ behavior as customers, as long as they have been active on your website or app since or after August 15th 2020.

Through the User Lifetime report, you can get the following information about each user:

  1. Initial interactions
  2. Most recent interactions
  3. Lifetime interactions
  4. Predictive metrics

You can learn more about user lifetime in GA via the article: How to use the user lifetime report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Importing data to Google Analytics 4

Importing data to Google Analytics 4

Through the data import feature, you can upload data from external data sources (like CRM, CMS, shopping cart, etc.) and then combine it with the Google Analytics 4 data. You can upload the data by uploading one or more CSV files to your GA4 property.

To learn more about the GA4 data import feature, check out the article: GA4 Data Import Tutorial

Google Analytics 4 test property

google analytics 4 test property

The Google Analytics 4 property comes with only one reporting view. So whenever you change one of the settings of your GA4 property, you permanently change the way the data is collected, processed and reported in your GA4 reporting view.

If the changes that you made skewed your analytics data, then your data is skewed for good. That’s why you need to create a separate GA4 property just for testing purposes. We call this property a GA4 test property.

To learn more about the GA4 test property, check out this article: Using the GA4 test property

Excluding unwanted referrals in Google Analytics 4

list unwanted referrals

In the Universal Analytics property, we have the referrals exclusion list to exclude the referral traffic from certain domains. In Google Analytics 4, the referrals exclusion list has been replaced by the ‘unwanted referrals’ list. 

Unlike in Universal Analytics, the GA4 can automatically detect and fix self-referral issues via the feature called ‘Automatic self-referral detection‘.

To learn more about excluding the unwanted referrals in GA4, check out this article: Self-referral Google Analytics 4 – Referral exclusion GA4

Dimensions in Google Analytics 4

dimensions in ga4 google analytics 4

A dimension is one of the attributes of your website/app users. Each dimension is made up of a name and a value. For example, ‘Sessions source/medium’ is the dimension name and ‘(direct)/(none)‘ is one of the values of this dimension.

There are two broad categories of dimensions in GA4: Default dimensions and custom dimensions. Both default dimensions and custom dimensions can be used as either a primary dimension or a secondary dimension.

To learn more about GA4 dimensions, check out this article: GA4 Dimensions Tutorial

Custom dimensions in GA4

custom dimensions in ga4

Google Analytics 4 allows you to create your dimensions to measure the data that cannot be measured by any default dimension. Such dimension is known as the custom dimension. Technically speaking, a custom dimension is an event parameter. 

To learn more about custom dimensions in GA4, check out this article: GA4 Custom Dimensions Tutorial

Event-scoped custom dimensions in Google Analytics 4

event scoped custom dimensions google analytics 4

In addition to creating a user scoped custom dimension in GA4, you can also create an event scoped custom dimension. The dimension which has an event scope is called the event scope dimension. This dimension gets its value from the event scoped parameter that you send along with an event. 

To learn more about GA4 event scoped custom dimensions, check out this article: Event Scoped Custom Dimensions in GA4 – Tutorial

User-scoped custom dimensions (user properties) in Google Analytics 4

user scoped custom dimensions in ga4

User properties are similar to the user-scoped custom dimensions of Universal Analytics. They are used to describe the attributes of your website/app users.

There are two types of user properties:

  1. Predefined user properties
  2. Custom user properties

You can create up to 25 unique user properties per GA4 property.

To learn more about user properties, check out this article: GA4 User Properties (User Scoped Custom Dimensions) – Tutorial

Metrics in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

metrics in google analytics 4

A GA4 metric is (and should be) a number that is used to measure one of the characteristics of a GA4 dimension. A dimension can have one or more characteristics.

For example, the following are the characteristics of the dimension called ‘User medium’:

  • New users
  • Engaged sessions
  • Engagement rate
  • Engaged sessions per user

Without a dimension, a standalone metric is meaningless to analyze and report. That is because a dimension provides context to a metric.

To learn more about metrics in GA4 check out this article: GA4 Metrics Tutorial

Custom metrics in Google Analytics 4

Create Custom metrics ga4

The custom metrics are user-defined metrics in GA4. You should create and use custom metrics when you want to measure the characteristics of a dimension (whether default or custom dimension) that cannot be measured by any default metric.

To learn more about custom metrics in GA4, check out this article: GA4 Custom Metrics Tutorial

Installing Google Analytics 4 on Shopify Store

ga4 shopify store

You can install Google Analytics 4 on your Shopify store by making code changes to the ‘theme.liquid’ file. To learn more, check out this article: How to Install Google Analytics 4 on Shopify

Google Analytics 4 Annotations

ga4 annotations

Google Analytics annotations are short notes that you can directly add to your GA reports. With the help of these notes, you can remember the reason for certain peaks and valleys in your data trends even months from today. 

In the case of Universal Analytics, the annotation features are built-in. But in the case of GA4, you would need to use a third-party tool. To learn more about adding annotations to your GA4 report check out this article: Google Analytics 4 Annotations Tutorial.

Setting up GA4 via GTM Server Side Tagging

google analytics 4 server side tracking 1

You can deploy Google Analytics 4 via the GTM server-side container.

To learn more check out this article: How to set up GA4 via GTM Server Side Tagging

Tracking single-page apps in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

singe page apps ga4

Learn to track single-page apps in Google Analytics 4 (GA4) through this step-by-step guide: How to track single page apps in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Connecting and exporting data from Google Analytics 4 to BigQuery

GA4 to BigQuery

GA4 allows you to link to a BigQuery project where you can run custom queries on the GA4 data sets. You can export all of the events from GA4 to BigQuery and then use SQL-like syntax to query the data.

Learn to connect and export data from GA4 to BigQuery through this step by step guide: How to connect and export data from GA4 to BigQuery

Cohort Exploration Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Cohort Exploration Report in Google Analytics 4

Through the cohort exploration report in GA4, you can do cohort analysis. The cohort analysis is the analysis of the website users who showed common characteristics, attributes, or experience in a particular time frame.

This report is available under ‘Explore’ menu in a GA4 reporting view. 

To learn more about cohort exploration in GA4, checkout this article: Cohort Exploration Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

Attribution Models in Google Analytics 4

ga4 attribution models

A GA4 attribution model is a rule or set of rules or a data-driven algorithm that is used to determine how conversion credit should be distributed to various marketing touchpoints on a conversion path.

Following attribution models are available in Google Analytics 4:

  1. Cross-channel last click attribution model
  2. Cross-channel first click attribution model
  3. Cross-channel linear attribution model
  4. Cross-channel position-based attribution model
  5. Time decay attribution model

Note: At the moment the Data-Driven Attribution Model is not available in GA4.

To learn more about GA4 attribution models, check out the following articles:

Frequently Asked Questions About Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

What is a Google Analytics 4 property?

A Google Analytics 4 property is the GA property that allows you to integrate mobile app and website usage data. A GA4 property can collect data from both your mobile apps and website.

How do I set up Google Analytics 4?

In order to set up Google Analytics 4 (GA4) you would need to create a new Google Analytics 4 property. Navigate to the admin section of your reporting view in your current GA property, click on the ‘Upgrade to GA4’ link and then follow the on-screen instructions in order to set up Google Analytics 4.

How do I upgrade to Google Analytics 4?

Navigate to the admin section of your reporting view in your current GA property, click on the ‘Upgrade to GA4’ link and then follow the on-screen instructions.

Note: If you already have an App + Web property then you do not need to upgrade. You already have access to the GA4 property as GA4 is just a new name for an App + Web property.

What is the difference between Google Analytics 4 and Google Analytics 3?

Following are the main differences between Google Analytics 4 and other earlier versions of Google Analytics (GA3, GA2):

1) GA4 has a different reporting interface than GA3
2) GA4 use a different measurement model than GA3
3) GA4 use measurement ID instead of tracking ID
4) Event tracking is set up differently in GA4
5) GA4 allows automation of certain types of events which is not possible in GA3
6) GA4 uses a different ‘User and event data retention period than GA3
7) The e-commerce tracking in GA4 is set up differently.
8) GA4 provides much more robust cross-device and cross-platform tracking than GA3
9) In GA4, Attribution Modelling capabilities are non-existent.
10) Custom dimensions in GA4 are set up differently

What are the advantages of using Google Analytics 4?

Following are the key advantages of using Google Analytics 4:
1) It provides more robust cross-device and cross-platform tracking.
2) It provides much more accurate reporting on unique users across platforms.
3) It provides Advanced Analysis reports.
4) You get a free connection to BigQuery.
5) There are no limits on the volume of data you can send to a GA4 property.
6) You can automate certain types of events.

Register for the FREE TRAINING...

"How to use Digital Analytics to generate floods of new Sales and Customers without spending years figuring everything out on your own."



Here’s what we’re going to cover in this training…

#1 Why digital analytics is the key to online business success.

​#2 The number 1 reason why most marketers are not able to scale their advertising and maximize sales.

#3 Why Google and Facebook ads don’t work for most businesses & how to make them work.

#4 ​Why you won’t get any competitive advantage in the marketplace just by knowing Google Analytics.

#5 The number 1 reason why conversion optimization is not working for your business.

#6 How to advertise on any marketing platform for FREE with an unlimited budget.

​#7 How to learn and master digital analytics and conversion optimization in record time.



   

My best selling books on Digital Analytics and Conversion Optimization

Maths and Stats for Web Analytics and Conversion Optimization
This expert guide will teach you how to leverage the knowledge of maths and statistics in order to accurately interpret data and take actions, which can quickly improve the bottom-line of your online business.

Master the Essentials of Email Marketing Analytics
This book focuses solely on the ‘analytics’ that power your email marketing optimization program and will help you dramatically reduce your cost per acquisition and increase marketing ROI by tracking the performance of the various KPIs and metrics used for email marketing.

Attribution Modelling in Google Analytics and BeyondSECOND EDITION OUT NOW!
Attribution modelling is the process of determining the most effective marketing channels for investment. This book has been written to help you implement attribution modelling. It will teach you how to leverage the knowledge of attribution modelling in order to allocate marketing budget and understand buying behaviour.

Attribution Modelling in Google Ads and Facebook
This book has been written to help you implement attribution modelling in Google Ads (Google AdWords) and Facebook. It will teach you, how to leverage the knowledge of attribution modelling in order to understand the customer purchasing journey and determine the most effective marketing channels for investment.

About the Author

Himanshu Sharma

  • Founder, OptimizeSmart.com
  • Over 15 years of experience in digital analytics and marketing
  • Author of four best-selling books on digital analytics and conversion optimization
  • Nominated for Digital Analytics Association Awards for Excellence
  • Runs one of the most popular blogs in the world on digital analytics
  • Consultant to countless small and big businesses over the decade
error: Alert: Content is protected !!