GA4 Attribution Modelling Tutorial

Last Updated: August 1, 2022

What is GA4 Attribution Modelling?

Attribution modelling is the process of finding and fixing attribution issues, understanding the buying behaviour of your website users and determining the most effective marketing channels for investment at a particular point in time.

Following is the more technical definition of attribution modelling:

Attribution modelling is the process of understanding and assigning conversion credit to marketing touchpoints on a conversion path with the aim to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Understand the customers’ purchase journey.
  2. Determine the most effective marketing channels for investment at a particular point in time.
  3. Find and fix attribution issues.

In order to understand the definition of attribution modelling, you would first need to understand the following terms really well:

  1. Conversion
  2. Conversion credit
  3. Conversion credit distribution
  4. Digital vs. non-digital marketing channels
  5. Touchpoints
  6. Conversion paths
  7. Attribution issues

Note: Attribution Modelling is full of jargon and if you do not understand the terminology, you will have a hard time understanding attribution reports and implementing attribution modelling.

Attribution Modelling in Google Analytics and Beyond
Attribution Modelling in Google Ads and Facebook

Get my best selling books on Attribution Modelling

  • Learn to implement attribution modelling in your organisation
  • Understand the customer purchase journey across devices
  • Determine the most effective marketing channels for investment

 Click book covers to find out more

What is a Conversion in GA4?

ga4 conversion

Conversion is one of the goals or purposes for setting up a website or mobile app. A conversion is what you are trying to achieve through your website/app. 

There can be one or many purposes for which you have set up your website or app. 

These purposes can be something like:

  • Selling products
  • Generating leads
  • Branding
  • Selling advertising
  • Collecting donations
  • Fighting for a cause, etc.

If one of your website goals is to generate orders on your website, then ‘the number of ecommerce transactions’ (aka purchases) could be defined as a conversion. 

Similarly,

If one of your website goals is to get sign-ups for your newsletter, then the ‘number of newsletter signups’ could be defined as a conversion.

What are macro and micro conversions?

The major purpose of setting up a website is known as a macro conversion and other minor purposes are known as micro conversions. 

For example,

If your main purpose of setting up a website is to generate sales than the ‘number of ecommerce transactions’ can be your macro conversion. 

The other minor purposes like ‘newsletters signup’, ‘downloading a brochure’, ‘providing customer support’, ‘requesting a follow-up’ etc. can be your micro conversions.

The technical definition of conversion in the context of GA4

In the context of GA4, a conversion is defined as a conversion event.

Since GA4 collects all of the users’ activities in the form of events, the events which are most important to your business must be marked as conversions:

ga4 mark as conversion

In GA4,

  • You can mark an existing event as a conversion.
  • You can stop marking an event as a conversion.
  • You can add a monetary value to a conversion event.
  • You can create a new conversion event based on an existing event.

Google Analytics 4 automatically designate the following events as conversions:

  1. purchase (web and app)
  2. first_open (app only)
  3. in_app_purchase (app only)
  4. app_store_subscription_convert (app only)
  5. app_store_subscription_renew (app only)

In addition to these events, you mark can up to 30 additional events as conversion per GA4 property.

The two categories of Conversions

In the context of attribution modelling, there are two categories of conversions: 

  1. Ecommerce conversions
  2. Goal conversions.

An ecommerce conversion is a conversion that is directly tied to a transaction. 

For example, a ‘purchase’ is an example of ecommerce conversion because it is directly tied to a transaction.

A goal conversion is a conversion that is not directly tied to a transaction. 

For example, ‘newsletter signup’ is an example of goal conversion as it is not directly tied to a transaction.

Articles on Conversions:

  1. Google Analytics Conversion Tracking Tutorial
  2. Google Analytics Goals and Sales Funnels – Tutorial
  3. How to fix Goal Conversion Irregularities in Google Analytics
  4. Calculate Ecommerce & Goal Conversion Rate in Google Analytics
  5. Conversion Rate in Google Analytics – Learn to Analyze & Report
Attribution Modelling in Google Analytics and Beyond
Attribution Modelling in Google Ads and Facebook

Get my best selling books on Attribution Modelling

  • Learn to implement attribution modelling in your organisation
  • Understand the customer purchase journey across devices
  • Determine the most effective marketing channels for investment

 Click book covers to find out more

What is a Conversion Credit?

A conversion credit (also known as conversion credit score) is the amount of credit given to a touchpoint for completing a conversion.

conversion credit score

What is a Conversion Credit distribution?

A conversion credit distribution is the distribution of conversion credit to various touchpoints on a conversion path.

Articles on Conversion Credit: 

  1. Conversion Credit Distribution for Attribution Models in Google Analytics
  2. Conversion Credit Models Guide – Google Analytics Attribution

Digital vs. Non-Digital Marketing Channels

The following are examples of digital marketing channels:

digital marketing channels ga4

Related Article: Google Analytics Channels, Source and Medium explained in great detail

The following are examples of non-digital marketing channels:

  • ‘TV’
  • ‘Radio’
  • ‘Billboard’
  • ‘Print Media’ (newspaper, magazine)

Related Article: Offline Conversion Tracking in Google Analytics – Tutorial

Why the focus is on digital marketing channels in attribution modelling?

In the case of attribution modelling, the marketing channels that we focus on are primarily digital marketing channels but can also include non-digital marketing channels as long as these channels are used to measure and optimise the ‘online performance’ of a business. 

Here there is a strong focus on optimizing the ‘online performance’ of a business. 

The non-digital marketing channels can also be used to optimize the ‘offline performance’ of a business. But that is marketing mix modelling and not attribution modelling.

Related Article: Marketing Mix Modeling vs. Attribution Modeling. Which one is right for your business?

What is a touchpoint in attribution modelling?

What is a touchpoint in attribution modelling

Technically speaking, any point of contact between a business and its customers is a touchpoint. 

But in the case of attribution modelling, we focus mainly on marketing touchpoints

So in the context of attribution modelling,

A touchpoint is exposure to a marketing channel. It is also known as ‘interaction’ or ‘touch’. 

The two categories of marketing touchpoints

Following are the two categories of marketing touchpoints: 

  1. Online marketing touchpoints
  2. Offline marketing touchpoints

Exposure to a digital marketing channel is called an online touchpoint. 

Exposure to a non-digital marketing channel is called an offline touchpoint. 

Store visits’ and ‘phone calls’ are examples of offline touchpoints.

Articles related to touchpoints:

  1. Multi Touch Attribution in Google Analytics
  2. Understanding Missing Touchpoints in Attribution Modelling
Attribution Modelling in Google Analytics and Beyond
Attribution Modelling in Google Ads and Facebook

Get my best selling books on Attribution Modelling

  • Learn to implement attribution modelling in your organisation
  • Understand the customer purchase journey across devices
  • Determine the most effective marketing channels for investment

 Click book covers to find out more

What is a conversion path in attribution modelling?

A conversion path is a path a user took to complete a conversion on your website/app.

In the context of Google Analytics, 

In the context of Google Analytics, a conversion path is a sequence of touchpoints (clicks, visits, impressions) with digital marketing channels during the 1 to 90 days period that leads to conversions.

What is Attribution Modelling in Google Analytics

The period of 1 to 90 days prior to conversions is known as the lookback window.

Consider the following hypothetical conversion path of a user:

hypothetical conversion path of a user

Here the user is exposed to 6 marketing channels before he made a purchase. 

Google Analytics will report this conversion path as:

Google Analytics will report this conversion path as

Important points to remember about conversion paths

  1. A conversion path is made up of one or more touchpoints.
  2. The conversion path is created for each conversion recorded by Google Analytics.
  3. The conversion paths are recorded via _ga cookie.
  4. There is no limit to the number of conversion paths Google Analytics can record.

Articles related to Conversion Paths:

  1. How to use Top Conversion Paths Report in Google Analytics
  2. Conversion Paths Report Explained in Google Analytics Attribution
  3. GA4 Conversion Paths Report in Attribution
  4. Top Conversion Paths Report vs Conversion Paths Report

Attribution issues

An attribution issue occurs when you can not determine the primary source of conversion or you do not know the conversion paths.

For example, you don’t really know where your sales came from. 

You don’t really know which marketing channel or set of channels has the biggest impact on sales. 

You as a business have got attribution issues when you can not put your finger on any one marketing activity and can not say with any degree of confidence that this is the marketing activity that has the most impact on our sales.

The following types of businesses are most likely to suffer from attribution issues:

  1. Businesses that have a long sales cycle
  2. Multi-channel retailers
  3. Non-ecommerce websites

To learn more about attribution issues, check out this article: What is Attribution Problem in Online Marketing

Quick recap of the definition of GA4 Attribution Modelling

Attribution modelling is the process of understanding and assigning conversion credit to marketing touchpoints on a conversion path with the aim to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Understand the customers’ purchase journey.
  2. Determine the most effective marketing channels for investment at a particular point in time.
  3. Find and fix attribution issues.

I hope now the definition of attribution modelling makes sense to you now.

GA4 Attribution Modelling capabilities

Google Analytics 4 Attribution Modelling capabilities include

#1 Access to advertising reports (Advertising Snapshot report, Model comparison report, Conversion paths report):

advertising reports ga4

#2 Access to GA4 attribution models (Cross-channel models, Ads-preferred rules-based model):

attribution models ga4

#3 Attribution settings (which are used to change the Reporting attribution model and lookback window at the GA4 property level):

attribution settings ga4

Note: GA4 attribution modelling capabilities are still nowhere as robust as the attribution modelling capabilities provided by Universal Analytics

Attribution Modelling in Google Analytics and Beyond
Attribution Modelling in Google Ads and Facebook

Get my best selling books on Attribution Modelling

  • Learn to implement attribution modelling in your organisation
  • Understand the customer purchase journey across devices
  • Determine the most effective marketing channels for investment

 Click book covers to find out more

What are GA4 Attribution Models?

The attribution models in GA4 are rules or sets of rules or data-driven algorithms that are used to determine how conversion credit should be distributed to various marketing touchpoints on a conversion path.

The conversion path can include both website and mobile app touchpoints.

Categories of GA4 Attribution Models

There are four categories of GA4 attribution models:

  1. Cross-channel rules-based models – This category includes Cross-channel last click, Cross-channel first click, Cross-channel linear, Cross-channel position-based and Time decay attribution models.
  2. Ads-preferred rules-based model.
  3. Data-driven attribution model
  4. Reporting attribution model – This model is used to calculate conversion credit in all of your GA4 reports.

To learn more about GA4 attribution models, check out the following two articles:

  1. Guide to Attribution Models in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)
  2. How to Change Attribution Models in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)?

What is a Lookback window in GA4?

A lookback window is the time period (measured in a number of days) that determines how far back in time a touchpoint (exposure to a marketing channel) is eligible for getting conversion credit. 

For example, a 30 days lookback window means a touchpoint is eligible for getting conversion credit for up to 30 days from the day it first occurred.

Similarly,

90 days lookback window means a touchpoint is eligible for getting conversion credit for up to 90 days from the day it first occurred.

By default, GA4 uses the 30 days lookback window for Acquisition conversion events (‘first_open’, ‘first_visit’) and 90 days lookback window for other conversion events. 

How to change the Lookback window in GA4?

GA4 uses the lookback window at the property level. At present, it is not possible to set different lookback windows for individual reports within the GA4 property.

If you want to change the lookback windows for Acquisition conversion events and/or other conversion events then follow the steps below:

Step-1: Navigate to your GA4 property.

Step-2: Click on the ‘Admin’ link from the left-hand side navigation:

ga4 admin button

Step-3: Click on ‘Attribution Settings’ under the property column:

attribution settings google analytics 4

Step-4: Scroll down until you see the section named ‘Lookback window’. 

lookback window ga4

Step-5: Change the lookback windows for Acquisition conversion events and/or other conversion events and then click on the ‘Save’ button:

Acquisition conversion events ga4

Note(1): Changing the lookback window will only apply going forward and these changes will be reflected in all reports within the GA4 property.

Note(2): The lookback window applies to all GA4 attribution models and all conversion types.

Advertising Snapshot Report in GA4

advertising snapshot report ga4 2

The Advertising Snapshot report is an advertising workspace in your GA4 property that gives an overview of your conversion performance and your customers’ purchase journeys. 

It is made up of cards and reports through which you can get answers to questions like: 

  • Which channels drive the most conversions?
  • What touchpoints do customers take to convert?

To learn more about the advertising snapshot report in GA4 check out this article: Advertising Snapshot in GA4 Attribution

Model comparison report in GA4

Model Comparison Report ga4 1

The GA4 Model Comparison report is used to compare different GA4 attribution models to each other. This comparison is carried out to identify new optimization opportunities.

The primary requirement for using the GA4 Model Comparison report is ecommerce tracking setup and/or goal conversion tracking setup for your GA4 property. 

Ideally, your GA4 property must have at least 30 days of historical data, so your data analysis is statistically significant

If you are using Google Ads, then make sure that you link your GA4 property with your Google Ads account.

To learn more about the Model Comparision report in GA4 check out this article: GA4 Model comparison report in Attribution

Conversion Paths report in GA4

conversion paths report ga4

Through the GA4 Conversion paths report, you can determine all those user paths that resulted in a conversion on your website and/or mobile app.

You can analyze conversion paths under different attribution models and in a particular time period.

The primary requirement for using the GA4 Conversion Paths report is ecommerce tracking and/or goal conversion tracking setup for your GA4 property. 

To learn more about the Conversion Paths report in GA4 check out this article: GA4 Conversion Paths Report in Attribution

Setting realistic expectations from Attribution Modelling in GA4

Keep following points in mind while implementing attribution modelling in your organization:

  1. Attribution Modelling is much more than Google Analytics.
  2. You do not need perfect data in order to implement attribution modelling.
  3. Attribution Modelling is not the be-all and end-all of solving all the problems around ROI.
  4. Attribution modelling is not a one-time activity.
  5. Focusing on a single marketing channel is not attribution.

#1 Attribution Modelling is much more than Google Analytics

Attribution is much more than Google Analytics

No one tool can solve all of your attribution issues. And Google Analytics is no exception.

You need a whole set of tools at your disposal in order to understand your customer purchase journey and behaviour.

For example,

Google Analytics is one of the best free tools for measuring website usage data. It is also the best tool for attribution modelling.

It is not, however, the best tool for:

Google Analytics has its own sets of limitations which you should be aware of.

Therefore, you should not limit yourself to just using Google Analytics and no other analytics tool or technology.

If you are a large enterprise then you should invest in more robust attribution modelling solutions.

If your budget allows, then create and use in-house custom attribution modelling solutions.

With custom solutions, you get maximum flexibility in terms of creating attribution models and applying custom credit rules.

You can achieve very robust data integration capabilities. Above all, you get complete ownership of your data and solutions.

#2 You do not need perfect data in order to implement attribution modelling

If you seek perfection then the majority of the time you will find yourself procrastinating. This is because things are perfect only once in a while.

Do not spend the majority of your time trying to collect perfect data so that you can take that perfect business decision.

Otherwise, there is a high probability that at the end of the day you will not take any decision or action.

Taking timely actions is extremely important in today’s world of cut-throat competition. Imperfect action is always better than inaction. Moreover, no analytics tool is perfect.

You cannot expect 100% accurate data from any analytics tool out there and Google Analytics is no exception.

So avoid being obsessed with collecting perfect data and be happy with good enough data.

#3 Attribution Modelling is not the be-all and end-all of solving all the problems around ROI

This is because attribution modelling is not optimization. Optimization is what SEO, PPC and Conversion professionals do.

Even with ideal budget allocation, you will not get optimum ROI across marketing channels if:

  1. Your campaigns are being optimised poorly.
  2. Your website is suffering from usability and credibility issues.
  3. Your competitor is dominating your market.

False or unrealistic expectations from attribution modelling can disappoint decision-makers. It could make them not want to trust, use, and value the attribution data.

All of these are bad signs for getting budget allocation for attribution modelling efforts.

That’s why setting up realistic expectations from the very start are very important.

#4 Attribution modelling is not a one-time activity

The marketing channel or activity that helped you to generate a conversion today may not help you to generate the same conversion tomorrow.

That’s why it is important to continuously explore the role of different marketing channels and campaigns in assisting conversions.

The performance of marketing channels and campaigns improves or deteriorates over time.

So you need to continuously find and separate good and bad marketing channels, ads and campaigns.

You then need to either improve the performance of the bad campaigns or replace them with brand new campaigns.

That is why attribution modelling is not a one-time activity. It is not something that you can do once and then forget about it.

#5 Focusing on a single marketing channel is not attribution

Focusing on a single marketing channel

In a multi-channel marketing world, no single channel is solely responsible for conversions.

Different marketing channels work together to create sales and other conversions.

That is why in attribution modelling we do not focus on measuring and optimising just one marketing channel.

We do not create attribution strategies around a single channel.

#1 Google Analytics 4 Intro

  1. What is GA4 (Google Analytics 4) – The Apps + Web Property?
  2. Key Benefits of Using Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  3. Setup GA4 – Upgrade to GA4 – Implementation Guide
  4. Google Analytics 4 (GA4) vs Universal Analytics – What is the difference?
  5. Google Signals GA4 – See demographics (gender, age) in Google Analytics 4
  6. Understanding Google Analytics Measurement ID (GA4)
  7. Google Analytics 4 training & tutorial with FREE GA4 ebook
  8. Using the GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Test Property
  9. Google Analytics 4 Sub Properties Tutorial
  10. Google Analytics Account Hierarchy (Structure Explained)
  11. Roll up Property in Google Analytics 4 (GA4) – Tutorial
  12. GA4 vs GA4 360 – What is the difference?

#2 Google Analytics 4 Integrations

  1. How to connect GA4 (Google Analytics 4) with Google Data Studio
  2. How to link GA4 (Google Analytics 4) with Google Ads
  3. How to link Google Search Console to Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  4. How to Install Google Analytics 4 on Shopify
  5. GA4 Firebase Integration – Correctly Add App Data Streams to GA4 Property

#3 Google Analytics 4 Events

  1. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Event Tracking Setup Tutorial
  2. Understanding Event Parameters in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  3. Recommended events in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  4. Enhanced measurement events in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  5. Automatically collected events in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  6. How to set up GA4 Custom Events via Google Tag Manager
  7. Events Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  8. How to rename events in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  9. How to use Google Analytics 4 Event Builder

#4 Google Analytics 4 Conversions

  1. Google Analytics 4 Conversion Tracking Guide – GA4 Goals
  2. How to import conversions from GA4 property to your Google Ads account

#5 Google Analytics 4 Dimensions

  1. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Dimensions Tutorial
  2. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Custom Dimensions Tutorial
  3. GA4 User Properties (User Scoped Custom Dimensions) – Tutorial
  4. Event Scoped Custom Dimensions in GA4 – Tutorial

#6 Google Analytics 4 Metrics

  1. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Metrics Tutorial with Free Google Analytics 4 Ebook
  2. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Custom Metrics Tutorial
  3. What are predictive metrics in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

#7 Google Analytics 4 Ecommerce

  1. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Ecommerce Tracking via GTM – Tutorial

#8 Google Analytics 4 Specialized Tracking

  1. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Enhanced Measurement Tracking Tutorial
  2. Cross Domain Tracking in GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Setup Guide
  3. GA4 Site Search – Tracking Site Search in Google Analytics 4
  4. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Scroll Tracking Tutorial
  5. Self-referral Google Analytics 4 – Referral exclusion GA4
  6. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Data Import Tutorial
  7. Google Analytics 4 Content Grouping – Create Content Groups in GA4
  8. How to track single page apps in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

#9 Google Analytics 4 filters

  1. GA4 filters – Understanding data filters in Google Analytics 4
  2. How to create and test filters in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)?
  3. Exclude internal traffic in GA4 (Google Analytics 4) via IP filter

#10 Google Analytics 4 Explorations

  1. Free Form Report in GA4 (Google Analytics 4) – Exploration Report
  2. How to use the user lifetime report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  3. How to use Path exploration report in GA4 (Google Analytics 4) – Path analysis
  4. How to use Segment Overlap Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  5. How to use the Funnel Exploration Report in GA4 (Google Analytics 4) – Funnel Analysis
  6. Cohort Exploration Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  7. How to Create Landing Pages Report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  8. How to create Google Ads report in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)
  9. How to segment GA4 data by data stream

#11 Google Analytics 4 Advanced

  1. Understanding Google Analytics 4 Sessions
  2. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Measurement Protocol Tutorial
  3. How to build comparisons (advanced segments) in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  4. Understanding Automated Insights in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  5. Understanding Channel Groupings in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  6. Understanding Data Sampling in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

#12 Google Analytics 4 Reporting

  1. How to create custom insights in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  2. How to use Debug View report in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)

#13 Google Analytics 4 Attribution

  1. Guide to Attribution Models in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)
  2. How to Change Attribution Models in GA4 (Google Analytics 4)?
  3. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Conversion Paths Report in Attribution
  4. GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Model comparison report in Attribution
  5. Advertising Snapshot in GA4 (Google Analytics 4) Attribution
  6. GA4 Attribution Modelling Tutorial

#14 Google Analytics 4 Audiences

  1. GA4 Audiences – Creating custom audience in Google Analytics 4
  2. How to create a remarketing audience in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  3. Understanding Audience Triggers in Google Analytics 4 (GA4)
  4. Google Analytics 4 (GA4) Predictive Audiences – Tutorial

#15 Google Analytics 4 BigQuery

  1. GA4 BigQuery – Connect Google Analytics 4 with BigQuery
  2. How to connect and export data from GA4 to BigQuery
  3. events_ & events_intraday_ tables in BigQuery for GA4 (Google Analytics 4)

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Attribution modelling is the process of determining the most effective marketing channels for investment. This book has been written to help you implement attribution modelling. It will teach you how to leverage the knowledge of attribution modelling in order to allocate marketing budget and understand buying behaviour.

Attribution Modelling in Google Ads and Facebook
This book has been written to help you implement attribution modelling in Google Ads (Google AdWords) and Facebook. It will teach you, how to leverage the knowledge of attribution modelling in order to understand the customer purchasing journey and determine the most effective marketing channels for investment.

About the Author

Himanshu Sharma

  • Founder, OptimizeSmart.com
  • Over 15 years of experience in digital analytics and marketing
  • Author of four best-selling books on digital analytics and conversion optimization
  • Nominated for Digital Analytics Association Awards for Excellence
  • Runs one of the most popular blogs in the world on digital analytics
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