Ecommerce Tracking in Google Analytics – Tutorial

 

What is Ecommerce Tracking in Google Analytics?

Ecommerce tracking is a feature of Google Analytics through which you can track ecommerce data (like sales amount, number of orders, billing location, average order value, etc) of a website/mobile app in Google Analytics.

If you run/manage an online store/app, you can’t just depend upon the analytics reports provided by your shopping cart. You need Google Analytics Ecommerce tracking set up for your website.

It is only by using Google Analytics ecommerce tracking, you can correlate sales data with website usage data like sessions, bounce rate, traffic source/medium, landing pages, etc.

Such type of correlation analysis is required in order to understand the performance of your landing pages and marketing campaigns. Otherwise, you may never know which landing pages and/or campaigns are driving sales and which are not.

 

What is Ecommerce Data in Google Analytics?

The ecommerce data in Google Analytics is made up of transaction data and item data.

Transaction Data

Transaction Data provide details about users’ transactions (aka orders) like:

  1. Transaction ID (or order ID).
  2. Store or affiliation name.
  3. Total revenue generated from the transaction (can also include shipping cost and taxes)
  4. Total shipping cost associated with the transaction
  5. Total tax associated with the transaction.

Item Data

Item data provides details about a purchased product like:

  1. Transaction ID (same as in the transaction data)
  2. Product Name
  3. Product SKU (or product code).
  4. Product Category
  5. Product Price
  6. Product Quantity

 

How to set up Ecommerce Tracking in Google Analytics?

Follow the steps below to set up ecommerce tracking:

Step-1: Sign up for Google Analytics account (if you already don’t have one).

Step-2: Once you have created your Google Analytics account then navigate to https://analytics.google.com/analytics/web/

Step-3: Click on the ‘Admin’ link at the bottom left-hand side:

Step-4: Click on the ‘Tracking Info‘ drop-down menu under the ‘Property Column’:

Step-5: Click on the ‘Tracking Code’ link:

Step-6: Copy the Google Analytics tracking code (the Global Site Tag (gtag.js) tracking code) from the box under the section ‘Website Tracking‘:

Step-7: Paste the Google Analytics tracking code on all the pages of your website (in the head section <head>…</head>). If you use a template file then paste the code in the header template file like header.php.

Step-8: Navigate to your website and then navigate to Real Time > Overview report in your Google Analytics account:

If you see the number of active users in your real time overview report than it means, Google Analytics (GA) has been successfully installed on your website. However, if you see 0 number of active users then it means, GA tracking is not correctly installed:

Step-9: Navigate to Conversions > Ecommerce > Overview report:

Whenever you navigate to one of the e-commerce reports of a GA view for which e-commerce tracking is not enabled, you see the message “This report requires ecommerce tracking to be set up for the view“. You would need to enable Ecommerce reporting for each view in which you want to see the ecommerce data.

 

Step-10: Click on the ‘Admin’ link at the bottom left-hand side:

Step-11: Click on ‘Ecommerce Settings‘ under the view column:

Step-12: Switch on the ‘Enable Ecommerce‘ toggle button and then click on the ‘Save’ button:

You have now successfully enabled Ecommerce reporting for your view. If you now navigate back to Conversions > Ecommerce > Overview report, you would no longer see the message “This report requires ecommerce tracking to be set up for the view“:

However, you still won’t see the e-commerce data because you have not installed e-commerce tracking code on your website.

Just because you have enabled ecommerce tracking reporting in GA does not mean that you have also set up ecommerce tracking. All you have done so far is allowed your GA view to collect and report on ecommerce data.

 

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Step-13: Integrate your shopping cart (like Shopify) with Google Analytics. Check the help documentation provided by your shopping cart for more details. Following are the help documentation for the most popular shopping carts:

Note: Shopping cart vendors generally won’t help you in setting up ecommerce tracking for your website. You would need to hire a developer (who has experience with Google Analytics Development environment) to install ecommerce tracking for you.

 

Step-14: Hire a Google Analytics developer to add the ecommerce tracking code (provided by Google) on the order confirmation page (generally the ‘thank you’ page).

Here is how the e-commerce tracking code looks like (if you are using analytics.js library):

ga(‘require’, ‘ecommerce’, ‘ecommerce.js’);

ga(‘ecommerce:addTransaction’, {
‘id’: ‘1234’, // Transaction ID. Required.
‘affiliation’: ‘skinny jeans’, // store name.
‘revenue’: ‘28.8’, // total revenue.
‘shipping’: ‘10.00’, // Shipping.
‘tax’: ‘1.89’ // Tax.
});

ga(‘ecommerce:addItem’, {
‘id’: ‘1234’, // Transaction ID. Required. Same as in the transaction data.
‘name’: ‘OKEJeans’, // Product name. Required.
‘sku’: ‘SKJ49’, // Product SKU.
‘category’: ‘Men Jeans’, // Product Category or variation.
‘price’: ‘76.65’, // Product price.
‘quantity’: ‘1’ // Product Quantity.
});

ga(‘ecommerce:send’);

 

This ecommerce tracking code is usually placed after the following line of code ga(‘create’, ‘UA-123456-12’, ‘auto’);  and just before the following code ga(‘send’, ‘pageview’);.in the Google Analytics Tracking Code:

So the whole set up may look like the one below:

<script>
(function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i[‘GoogleAnalyticsObject’]=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){
(i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),
m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m)
})(window,document,’script’,’//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js’,’ga’);

ga(‘create’, ‘UA-123456-12’, ‘auto’);

ga(‘require’, ‘ecommerce’, ‘ecommerce.js’);

ga(‘ecommerce:addTransaction’, {
‘id’: ‘1234’, // Transaction ID. Required.
‘affiliation’: ‘skinny jeans’, // store name.
‘revenue’: ‘28.8’, // total revenue.
‘shipping’: ‘10.00’, // Shipping.
‘tax’: ‘1.89’ // Tax.
});

ga(‘ecommerce:addItem’, {
‘id’: ‘1234’, // Transaction ID. Required. Same as in the transaction data.
‘name’: ‘OKEJeans’, // Product name. Required.
‘sku’: ‘SKJ49’, // Product SKU.
‘category’: ‘Men Jeans’, // Product Category or variation.
‘price’: ‘76.65’, // Product price.
‘quantity’: ‘1’ // Product Quantity.
});

ga(‘ecommerce:send’);

ga(‘send’, ‘pageview’);

</script>

Here the code in bold letters is the ecommerce tracking code. The rest is the Google Analytics tracking code.

However, this code is still not complete. To actually retrieve ecommerce data from your shopping cart, you need to add a server-side script to the code above.

 

Step-15: Ask your developer to add a server-side script (like PHP, ASP, etc) to your commerce tracking code. Your server-side script should loop through all the products purchased in a transaction and send product data for each of them to the Google Analytics server.

So your actual ecommerce tracking code will look very different once the server-side script is added to it.

For example, here is how your ecommerce tracking may look like, if you used PHP:

<script>
(function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i[‘GoogleAnalyticsObject’]=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){
(i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),
m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m)
})(window,document,’script’,’//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js’,’ga’);

ga(‘create’, ‘UA-123456-12’, ‘auto’);

ga(‘require’, ‘ecommerce’, ‘ecommerce.js’);

<?php

If($_SERVER[SCRIPT_NAME]==/thank-you.php”) {

?>

ga(‘ecommerce:addTransaction’, {
‘id’: ‘<? = $orders[‘order_id’]?>’,
‘affiliation’: ‘<? = $orders[‘store_name’]?>’,
‘revenue’: ‘<? = $orders[‘revenue’]?>’,
‘shipping’: ‘<? = $orders[‘shipping’]?>’,
‘tax’: ‘<? = $orders[‘tax’]?>’
});
<?php

for ($i=0;$n=sizeof($products_array);$i<$n;$i++) {

?>

ga(‘ecommerce:addItem’, {
‘id’: ‘<? = $orders[‘order_id’] ?>’,
‘name’: ‘<? =$products_array[$i][‘name’] ?>’,
‘sku’: ‘<? =$products_array[$i][‘sku’] ?>’,
‘category’: ‘<? =$products_array[$i][‘category’] ?>’,
‘price’: ‘<? =$products_array[$i][‘price’] ?>’,
‘quantity’: ‘<? =$products_array[$i][‘quantity’] ?>’
});

}
?>

ga(‘ecommerce:send’);

ga(‘send’, ‘pageview’);

</script>

Note(1): Do not use this ecommerce tracking code on your website. It is just an example and is not even a complete code.

Note(2): The actual ecommerce tracking code will vary depending upon your CMS and shopping cart.

 

Step-16: Set up a funnel for your checkout process in Google Analytics. To do this, first determine all of the webpages which make up your shopping cart funnel (including the URL of the order confirmation page).

To learn more about setting up funnels in GA, check out this article: The Geek Guide to Understanding Funnels in Google Analytics

Step-17: Place a test transaction and see whether you are getting the correct ecommerce data in GA reports.

 

Understanding Shopping Carts and Payment Gateways

In order to understand how ecommerce tracking works, you first need to know about shopping carts and payment gateways.

You can learn about, how shopping carts and payment gateways work and interact with Google Analytics, in this article: Understanding Shopping Carts for analytics and Conversion Optimization

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Ecommerce Conversion Rate

ecommerce conversion rate

Ecommerce conversion rate is the percentage of sessions that results in ecommerce transactions (in a given time period).

Ecommerce conversion rate = (Total Ecommerce Transactions/Total website sessions) * 100

For e.g. the ecommerce conversion rate in the chart above was calculated as:

= (1,736 transactions / 996,563 sessions) * 100 = 0.17%

Ecommerce Transactions and Transaction IDs

Transaction (or ecommerce transaction) is a purchase order.

transactions

For example, 1,736 transactions mean 1,736 purchase orders were placed on the website.

The ecommerce overview report shows the total number of transactions carried out on the website in a specified time period. Each transaction is identified through a unique ID known as transaction ID.

transaction id

Here, 4419144621 is a transaction ID.

A single transaction can include several products or several units of the same product as a person can buy several products in one transaction or several units of the same product in one transaction. For example, a person can buy an iPhone and an iPad in a single transaction or a person can buy 10 units (or pieces) of iPhone in a single transaction.

Note: The value of transaction ID is of type ‘string’.

Revenue

revenue

The revenue that you see in the Ecommerce Overview report is the total revenue.

Total Revenue = Total Product Revenue + Total Tax + Total Shipping

For example, the total revenue in the Ecommerce Overview report was calculated as:

Total Revenue = $188,211.37 (total product revenue) + $47,371.58 (total tax) + $1,274.95 (total shipping) = $236,857.90

Your total revenue figure in the Ecommerce Overview report depends upon how the ecommerce tracking has been setup.

If your client decided to exclude tax and shipping amount from the total revenue, then your total revenue and product revenue amount would be the same.

If the tax information and/or shipping information is not supplied while setting up ecommerce tracking then Google Analytics can’t report such information in its reports and they won’t be included in the computation of total revenue.

Note: The value of revenue is of type ‘currency’.

Average Order Value

average order value

Average value or average order value (AOV) is the average value of an ecommerce transaction.

Average Value = Total Revenue/Total Transactions

For example, the AOV in the chart above was calculated as:

AOV = $236,857.90 / 1,736 = $136.44

Note: The value of Average Order Value is of type ‘currency’.

 

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Unique Purchases

unique purchases

Unique purchase is the total number of times a product or a set of products was a part of a transaction.

There are two categories of unique purchases in Google Analytics:

#1 Total Unique purchases of a set of products

#2 Total Unique purchases of a product.

total unique purchases of a set of product

total unique purchases of a product

Note: The total unique purchases of a product are not equal to the total number of units sold for the product in one transaction. For example, the total unique purchases of the first product are 75.

But many people wrongly assume the 75 units of the first product were sold in one transaction. This is not the case.

The 75 figure tells you that the first product was a part of a transaction 75 times. It doesn’t tell you the number of units sold for the product in one transaction.

In order to find the number of units of a product which were sold in one transaction, follow the steps below:

  1. Click on a product link in the ‘Product Performance’ report (under Conversions > Ecommerce).
  2. Add ‘transaction ID’ as a ‘secondary dimension.
  3. Sort the ‘Unique Purchases’ column in decreasing order.

You will now see a report like the one below:

total units sold

Note: The value of Unique Purchases is of type ‘number’.

Quantity

quantity

Quantity is the total number of units sold for a product or set of products. There are two categories of quantities in Google Analytics:

#1 Total number of units sold for a set of products

#2 Total number of units sold for a product.

quantity2

Note: The value of quantity is of type ‘number’.

Average Quantity

Average quantity is the average number of units sold for a product or set of products in one transaction.

average quantity

Average Quantity = Quantity / Unique Purchases

For example:

  • The average quantity of a set of products is calculated as 3684/3242 = 1.14
  • The average quantity of 1st product is calculated as 114/93 = 1.23
  • The average quantity of 2nd product is calculated as 62/61 = 1.02

Note: The value of average quantity is of type ‘number’

Product SKU

Stock keeping unit or SKU is a product code that is used to uniquely identify a product.

product sku

Note: The value of product SKU is of type ‘string’

Average Price

Average price is the price of a single unit of a product.

average price

Average price of a set of products = Total Product Revenue / Total Quantity = $3,701,278.00 / 45,226 = $81.84

Average price of the first product = price of the single unit of a product = $79

average price

Note: The value of average price is of type ‘currency’

Product Revenue

 Product revenue is the total revenue generated from a product or a set of products.

product revenue

Product Revenue = Quantity * Average Price

In this example,

Total Revenue generated from a set of products is calculated as: 45,226 * $81.84 = $3,701,278.00

Total Revenue generated from the first products is calculated as: 13,281 * $79.00 = $1,049,199.00

Note(1): Product revenue doesn’t include tax and shipping charges.

Note (2): The value of average price is of type ‘currency’

 

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Per Session Value

Per session value is the average value of a session of your ecommerce website.

per session value

 

Per session value = Total Revenue / Total Sessions

For example, in the chart above,

The per session value for all traffic sources is calculated as: $280,650.01 / 1,182,618 = $0.24

The per session value of the traffic from Google Organic is calculated as: $77,228.80 / 210,212 = $0.37

Higher the per session value, the more valuable the traffic is for your ecommerce business. 

Note(1): You can determine per session value through ‘Ecommerce’ Tabs found in various reports.

Note (2): The ‘per session value’ is of type ‘currency’

Where Can You See Ecommerce Metrics in Google Analytics?

You can see ecommerce metrics in various ecommerce reports (under Conversions > Ecommerce) and via the ‘Ecommerce’ explorer tab of many other GA reports:

ecommerce reports

 

Anatomy of ECommerce Tracking Code

The ecommerce tracking code is made up of the following four commands:

  1. ecommerce
  2. ecommerce:addTransaction
  3. ecommerce:addItem
  4. ecommerce:send

‘ecommerce’ command

This command is used to load the ecommerce plugin.

Syntax: ga(‘require’, ‘ecommerce’, ‘ecommerce.js’);

The plugin contains the functionality for ecommerce tracking in GA. You have to load this plugin, otherwise, your ecommerce tracking won’t work.

Note: The ‘ecommerce’ command should always be called after you have created the tracker object and before following, commands are executed: ecommerce:addTransaction, ecommerce:addItem and ecommerce:send

ecommerce command

 

tracking won

 

‘ecommerce:addTransaction’ command

This command is used to create a visitor’s transaction and to store all the information about the transaction.

Syntax:

ga(‘ecommerce:addTransaction’, {
‘id’: ‘1234’, // Transaction ID. Required.
‘affiliation’: ‘skinny jeans’, // store name.
‘revenue’: ‘28.8’, // total revenue.
‘shipping’: ‘10.00’, // Shipping.
‘tax’: ‘1.89’ // Tax.
});

 

‘ecommerce:addItem’ command

This command is used to add a product to a visitor’s transaction and to store all the information about the purchased product.

Syntax:

ga(‘ecommerce:addItem’, {
‘id’: ‘1234’, // Transaction ID. Required. Same as in the transaction data.
‘name’: ‘OKEJeans’, // Product name. Required.
‘sku’: ‘SKJ49’, // Product SKU.
‘category’: ‘Men Jeans’, // Product Category or variation.
‘price’: ‘76.65’, // Product price.
‘quantity’: ‘1’ // Product Quantity.
});

 

‘ecommerce:send’ command

This command is used to send all of the ecommerce data to the Google Analytics server.

Syntax: ga(‘ecommerce:send’);

Note: without using the command, you can’t send ecommerce data to Google Analytics.

 

Important Points about Ecommerce Tracking in Google Analytics

#1 It is common to have data discrepancy between Google Analytics sales data and your shopping cart sales data.

All major pre-built shopping carts have the functionality to handle canceled orders, test orders, promo/discount codes, unfulfilled orders and refund (partial or full).

Google Analytics does not have any such in-built functionality.

Once a user is served an order confirmation page, the ecommerce tracking code is executed and the transaction is recorded by GA. If the user later asks for a refund, cancels the order or the order is not fulfilled then these changes don’t automatically reflect back in GA ecommerce reports.

Thus depending upon the volume of canceled orders, refunds and unfulfilled orders your website gets every day, you may see either small or large data discrepancy between GA sales data and your shopping cart sales data.

Remember GA was never designed to function as accounting software. So do not expect 100% accuracy in sales data.

Since Shopping cart handles sales data much better than GA, so whenever you are in doubt, trust your shopping cart data more.

#2 Test orders can very easily skew your ecommerce data in Google Analytics

It is common for web developers to place test orders while testing an application. But it is not common for them to reverse test transactions in Google Analytics.

All the test orders need to be reversed, otherwise, they can greatly inflate your sales data.

Ask your developer to provide you with a list of all test orders placed on the website, at least once a month and then at least deduct them from your analysis, if you can’t reverse them.

Related Article: Fixing Duplicate, Cancelled, Test orders & Refunds in Google Analytics

#3 Data sampling issues can easily skew your ecommerce data

If your website gets more than 250k sessions a month and you don’t use GA premium, there is a good possibility that your website is suffering from data sampling issues. When GA sample your data badly, you can’t trust the metrics reported by it.

Your ecommerce data from revenue to ecommerce conversion rate could be 10 to 80% off the mark.

Avoid using advanced segments or secondary dimensions during data interpretation when you have got data sampling issues.

Related Article: Google Analytics Data Sampling – Complete Guide

#4 Watch out for Duplicate transactions

This is a very common issue I encounter while doing a GA audit.

A duplicate transaction can take place when an ecommerce tracking code is executed more than once without placing any new order. Duplicate transactions can easily skew your ecommerce data.

To fix the duplicate transaction issues, check out this article: Fixing Duplicate, Cancelled, Test orders & Refunds in Google Analytics

 

If you want to set up ecommerce tracking in Google Tag Manager then check out the following article: Implementing Ecommerce Tracking via Google Tag Manager

If you are interested in learning about enhanced ecommerce tracking, I have got half a dozen articles for you:

#1 Enhanced Ecommerce Tracking in Google Analytics – Beginners Guide

#2 Implementing Enhanced Ecommerce Tracking in Google Analytics – Nerd Guide

#3 Using Enhanced Ecommerce Segments for Remarketing in Google Analytics

#4 Using Cohort Analysis & Enhanced Ecommerce to Understand Users Behavior

#5 Fixing Duplicate, Cancelled, Test Orders and Refunds in Google Analytics

#6 Enhanced Ecommerce Tracking via Google Tag Manager

Other articles on specialized tracking in Google Analytics

  1. Ecommerce Tracking in Google Analytics – Tutorial
  2. Event Tracking via Google Tag Manager – Tutorial
  3. Event Tracking in Google Analytics – Tutorial
  4. Guide to Google Analytics Store Visits Tracking
  5. Offline Conversion Tracking in Google Analytics – Tutorial
  6. Implementing E-Commerce Tracking via Google Tag Manager
  7. Tracking Virtual Pageviews in Google Tag Manager – Tutorial
  8. YouTube Video tracking via Google Tag Manager
  9. How to Use Keyword Hero to Reveal Not Provided Keywords in Google Analytics
  10. Virtual pageviews in Google Analytics – Tutorial
  11. Google Analytics and YouTube Integration Tutorial
  12. Google Analytics for Facebook Tutorial
  13. Google Analytics Cross Domain Tracking Explained Like Never Before
  14. Using multiple Google Analytics tracking codes on web pages
  15. The one thing that you don’t know about PayPal.com and the referral exclusion list
  16. Calculated Metrics in Google Analytics – Tutorial
  17. Creating your own Google Analytics Tag Auditing System
  18. Tracking Site Search without Query Parameter in Google Tag Manager
  19. Tracking true referrals in Google Analytics when using PayPal and other payment gateways
  20. Phone Call Tracking in Google Analytics and Beyond
  21. Learn to Track Qualified and Won Leads in Google Analytics
  22. Introduction to Postbacks in Google Analytics
  23. Google Analytics Recurring Revenue and Subscriptions Tracking Tutorial
  24. How to track the impact of cookie consent on website traffic in Google Analytics
  25. Tracking Offline Conversions in Google Ads
  26. Implementing Scroll Tracking via Google Tag Manager
  27. Scroll Tracking via Scroll Depth Trigger in Google Tag Manager
  28. Site Search Tracking In Google Analytics Without Query Parameters
  29. Video Tracking via YouTube Video Trigger In Google Tag Manager
  30. How to Correctly Measure Conversion Date & Time in Google Analytics
  31. Google Analytics Social Tracking – Twitter, Facebook, Google Plus and LinkedIn
  32. Google Analytics Cross Domain Tracking (ga.js)
  33. Tracking Twitter and Linkedin Social Interactions in Google Analytics
  34. Creating Content Group in Google Analytics via tracking code using gtag.js
  35. Tracking Site Search in Google Analytics with Query Parameters
  36. Understanding site search tracking in Google Analytics
  37. Creating and Using Site Search Funnel in Google Analytics
  38. Learn to Setup Facebook Pixel Tracking via Google Tag Manager
  39. Setting up & Tracking AMP Pages in Google Analytics
  40. Setting up Sales Funnel across websites in Google Analytics
  41. Regular Expressions (Regex) for Google Analytics & Google Tag Manager – Tutorial

Frequently Asked Questions About Ecommerce Tracking in Google Analytics

Why do you need ecommerce tracking?

If you run/manage an online store/app, you can’t just depend upon the analytics reports provided by your shopping cart. You need Google Analytics Ecommerce tracking set up for your website. It is only by using Google Analytics ecommerce tracking, you can correlate sales data with website usage data like sessions, bounce rate, traffic source/medium, landing pages, etc.

Such type of correlation analysis is required in order to understand the performance of your website landing pages and marketing campaigns. Otherwise, you may never know which landing pages and/or campaigns are driving sales and which are not.

What is ecommerce conversion rate?

Ecommerce conversion rate is the percentage of sessions which results in ecommerce transactions (in a given time period). Following is the formula to calculate ecommerce conversion rate:

Ecommerce conversion rate = (Total Ecommerce Transactions/Total website sessions) * 100

What is an ecommerce transaction?

Transaction (or ecommerce transaction) is a purchase order. Each transaction is identified through a unique ID known as transaction ID.

A single transaction can include several products or several units of the same product as a person can buy several products in one transaction or several units of the same product in one transaction. For example, a person can buy iPhone and an iPad in a single transaction or a person can buy 10 units (or pieces) of iPhone in a single transaction.

What is average order value?

Average value or average order value (AOV) is the average value of an ecommerce transaction.

Average Value = Total Revenue/Total Transactions
For example, the AOV in the chart above was calculated as:
AOV = $236,857.90 / 1,736 = $136.44

What are unique purchases?

Unique purchase is the total number of times a product or a set of products was a part of a transaction. There are two categories of unique purchases in Google Analytics:

#1 Total Unique purchases of a set of products
#2 Total Unique purchases of a product.

The total unique purchases of a product is not equal to the total number of units sold for the product in one transaction.

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Himanshu Sharma

Digital Marketing Consultant and Founder of Optimizesmart.com

Himanshu helps business owners and marketing professionals in generating more sales and ROI by fixing their website tracking issues, helping them understand their true customers' purchase journey and helping them determine the most effective marketing channels for investment.

He has over 12 years of experience in digital analytics and digital marketing.

He was nominated for the Digital Analytics Association's Awards for Excellence. The Digital Analytics Association is a world-renowned not-for-profit association that helps organisations overcome the challenges of data acquisition and application.

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